Pseudemydura umbrina Siebenrock, 1901

Western Swamp tortoise, Short-necked tortoise, Western short-necked turtle, Western Swamp turtle

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Emydura inspectata Glauert, 1954:125

 

Conservation Status

Last Record: 1839

Rediscovered in 1954*

* July 1953 as E. inspectata Glauert, 1954


IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered

 

Distribution

Ellenbrook, Western Australia, Australia

 

Biology

 

 

Hypodigm

 

 

Media

 

Enclosure at Perth Zoo, with species information sign. Photographer: Kerrie Ward. © 2017

 

Western Swamp tortoise with identification marks (Perth Zoo). Photographer: Kerrie Ward. © 2017

 

Western Swamp tortoise with identification marks (Perth Zoo). Photographer: Kerrie Ward. © 2017

 

References

Original scientific description:

Siebenrock, F. (1901). Beschreibung einer neuen Schildkrötengattung aus der Familie Chelydidae von Australien: Pseudemydura. Anz. Akad. Wiss., Wien, math.-naturwiss. KL, Abt.1, 22: 249-251.

 

Other references:

Anonymous. (1971). Our Diminishing Heritage. S.W.A.N.S. 2(4): 88-89.

Anonymous. (1972). Reserve management—why and how. S.W.A.N.S. 3(2): 41-45. [photograph of animal with radio transmitter attached]

Anonymous. (1973). Additional protection for rare fauna. S.W.A.N.S. 4(2): 31-33.

Anonymous. (1978). Western swamp tortoise. S.W.A.N.S. 8(1): 15.

Anonymous. (1980). Western swamp tortoise breeds in captivity. S.W.A.N.S. 10(2): 6-7.

Anonymous. (2008). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2007-2008. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2009). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2008-2009. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2010). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2009-2010. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2011). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2010-2011. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2012). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2011-12. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2013). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2012-13. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2014). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2013-14. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2015). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2014-15. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2016). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2015-16. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2017). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2016-17. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2018). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2017-18. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Anonymous. (2019). Zoological Parks Authority Annual Report 2018-19. Zoological Parks Authority, South Perth.

Aplin, K. P. and Smith, L. A. (2001). Checklist of the frogs and reptiles of Westem Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement No. 63: 51-74.

Bradsell, P., Prince, J., Kuchling, Gerald, & Knott, B. (2002). Aggressive interactions between freshwater turtle, Chelodina oblonga, hatchlings and freshwater crayfish, Cherax spp.: implications for the conservation of the critically endangered western swamp turtle, Pseudemydura umbrina. Wildlife Research 29(3): 295-301. [Abstract]

Burbidge, Andrew A. (1967). The biology of south-western Australian tortoises. PhD Thesis, University of Western Australia, Perth.

Burbidge, Andrew A. (1981). The ecology of the Western Swamp Tortoise Pseudemydura umbrina (Testudines: Chelidae). Australian Wildlife Research 8(1): 203-223. [Abstract]

Burbidge, Andrew A. (1983). A very rare Australian. Australian Natural History 21(1): 14-17.

Burbidge, Andrew A. (1984). A Very Rare Australian: the Western Swamp Tortoise, pp. ?-?. In: Archer, M. and Clayton, G. (eds),. Vertebrate Zoogeography and Evolution in Australia. Perth: Hesperian Press.

Burbidge, Andrew A. (1987a). The Western Swamp Tortoise. Resource Notes No. 13. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.

Burbidge, Andrew A. (1987b). Endangered! Western Swamp Tortoise. Landscope 3(3): 44.

Burbidge, Andrew A. (1991). What the tortoise taught us. Landscope 6: 28-34.

Burbidge, Andrew and Friend, Anthony "Tony". (1988). Back from the edge of extinction. In: Newman, P., Neville, S. and Duxbury, L. (eds), Case studies in environmental hope. Environmental Protection Authority, Perth.

Burbidge, Andrew A. and Jenkins, R.W.G. (1984). Endangered vertebrates of Australia and its island Territories. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

Burbidge, Andrew A., Kirsch, J. A., & Main, A. R. (1974). Relationships within the Chelidae (Testudines: Pleurodira) of Australia and New Guinea. Copeia, 392-409. [Abstract]

Burbidge, Andrew A. and Kuchling, Gerald. (1994). Western Swamp Tortoise Recovery Plan. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 11. (Department of Conservation and Land management, Perth.)

Burbidge, Andrew A. and Kuchling, Gerald. (2004). Western Swamp Tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) Recovery Plan). Western Swamp Tortoise Recovery Team and the Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.

Burbidge Andrew A., Kuchling G., Fuller P.J., Graham G. S. and Miller, D. (1990). The Western Swamp Tortoise. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 6. (Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth).

Burbidge, A., Kuchling, G., Mutter, L. and Burford, D. (2000). Western swamp tortoise recovery plan: annual report, 1999. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia, pp. 1-16.

Bush, Brian. (1997). The Western Swamp Turtle (Pseudemydura umbrina): a radical conservation plan. WASAH Newsletter 11: 11-13.

Cogger, Hal G., Cameron, Elizabeth E. and Cogger, H. M. (1983). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 1. Amphibia and Reptilia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, ACT. 313 pp.

Cogger, Hal G., Cameron, Elizabeth E., Sadlier, Ross A. and Eggler, Peter. (1993). The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. [pp. 19-21]

Department of Parks and Wildlife 2014–15 Yearbook, Department of Parks and Wildlife, 2015

Durell, Bradie and Keeley, Tamara. (2019). Sexually Dimorphic Growth in the Western Swamp Tortoise, Pseudemydura umbrina (Testudines: Chelidae). Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 7(3): 102-108. [automatic download]

Ellis, Ryan J. and Georges, Arthur. (2015). An annotated type catalogue of the turtles (Testudines: Pleurodira: Chelidae) in the collection of the Western Australian Museum. Records of the Western Australian Museum 30(1): 52-60.

Gaffney, E.S. (1977). The side-necked turtle family Chelidae: a theory of relationships using shared derived characters. American Museum Novitates 2620: 1-28.

Garnett, Stephen T., Latch, Peter, Lindenmayer, David B. and Woinarski, John C. Z. (eds.). (2018). Recovering Australian Threatened Species: A Book of Hope. CSIRO Publishing. 360 pp.

Georges, A, Birrell, J., Saint, K.M., McCord, W. And Donnellan, S.C. (1998). A phylogeny for side-necked turtles (Chelonia: Pleurodira) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence variation. Biological Journal ofthe Linnean Society 67: 213-246.

Glauert, Ludwig. (1954). Herpetologica miscellania, IV. A new swamp tortoise from the Swan River district. Western Australian Naturalist 4(6): 125-127.

Glauert, Ludwig. (1955a). The "New Tortoise". Western Australian Naturalist 5(2): [pagination?].

Glauert, Ludwig. (1955b). Correction: Herpetological Miscellanea. By L. Glauert.W. Aust. Nat., 4 (8), May 6, 1955. Western Australian Naturalist 5(2): [pagination?]. [correct title?; relevant citation?]

Goode, John. (1967). Freshwater tortoises of Australia and New Guinea (in the family Chelidae). Melbourne, Lansdowne Press, x plus 154 pp.

Groth, D., Hall, G.P., Wetherall, J.D., Kuchling, G. and Burbidge, A.A. (in press). DNA profiling of the Western Swamp Tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) using blood and allantoic membranes. Wildlife Research.

Guyot, G. and Kuchling, G. (1998). One way-gates for a fenced population of the Australian western swamp turtle, Pseudemydura umbrina, pp. 167-172. In: Miau, C. and Guyétant, R. (eds), Le Bourget du Lac/France, SEH 1998.

Hoser, Raymond T. (1991). Endangered Animals of Australia. Mosman, NSW: Pierson & Co. 240 pp. [pp. 83]

King, J. M., Kuchling, G., & Bradshaw, S. D. (1998). Thermal environment, behavior, and body condition of wild Pseudemydura umbrina (Testudines: Chelidae) during late winter and early spring. Herpetologica 54: 103-112. [Abstract]

Kuchling, Gerald. (1988). Zur Fortpflanzung von Pseudemydura umbrina Siebenrock, 1901: Neue Untersuchungsmethoden für die Rettung einer vom Aussterben bedrohten Schildkrötenart (Testudines: Chelidae). Herpetozoa 1(1/2): 3-11.

Kuchling, Gerald. (1989). Assessment of ovarian follicles and oviductal eggs by ultra-sound scanning in live freshwater turtles, Chelodina oblonga. Herpetologica 1989: 89-94. [Abstract]

Kuchling, Gerald. (1990). Rescuing the western swamp tortoise Pseudemydura umbrina from extinction, an ecophysiological approach to captive breeding. WWF Project P125 Final Report, Perth.

Kuchling, Gerald. (1993a). Nesting of Pseudemydura umbrina (Testudines: Chelidae): the other way round. Herpetologica 1993: 479-487. [Abstract]

Kuchling, Gerald. (1993b). Managing the last survivors: integration of in situ and ex situ conservation of Pseudemydura umbrina. Proceedings: Conservation, Management and Restoration of Tortoises and Turtles 1993:11-16.

Kuchling, Gerald. (1995). Restoring viable populations of the Western Swamp Tortoise. WWF Australia Final Report Project P182, University of Western Australia, Nedlands.

Kuchling, Gerald. (1996). Ethics of manipulation - the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) example. In: SOPTOM (ed) Proceedings, International Congress of Chelonian Conservation, 6-10 July 1995, Gonfaron. Editions SOPTOM, Gonfaron, pp 99-103.

Kuchling, Gerald. (1997). Managing the last survivors: integration of in situ and ex situ conservation of [i]Pseudemydura umbrina[/i]. In: Abbema, J. Van (ed) Proceedings: Conservation, Management and Restoration of Tortoises and Turtles, 11-16 July 1993, Purchase. New York Turtle and Tortoise Society, New York, pp 339-344.

Kuchling, Gerald. (2000). Conservation strategies for remnant turtle populations: the Western Australian swamp turtle [i]Pseudemydura umbrina[/i] recovery programme. In: Hödl, W. and Rößler, M. (eds). Die Europäische Sumpfschildkröte. Biologiezentrum des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums (Stapfia 69), 179-188.

Kuchling, G. (2015). Ultrasound scanning as an effective tool in the conservation of chelonians. International Zoo Yearbook 49(1): 22-30. [Abstract]

Kuchling, Gerald and Bradshaw, S. D. (1993). Ovarian cycle and egg production of the western swamp tortoise [i]Pseudemydura umbrina[/i] (Testudines: Chelidae) in the wild and in captivity. Journal of Zoology 229(3): 405-419. [Abstract]

Kuchling, Gerald and Burbidge, Andrew A. (1996). Survey of the Western Swamp Tortoise and its habitat at the Perth Airport. Report to the Federal Airports Corporation and the Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Chelonia Enterprises, Subiaco.

Kuchling, Gerald, Burbidge, A. A., Bradshaw, S. D. and DeJose, J. (1988). News of Pseudemydura umbrina. IUCN Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group Newsletter 3: 2.

Kuchling, G. and DeJose, J. P. (1989). A captive breeding operation to rescue the critically endangered Western Swamp Turtle Pseudemydura umbrina from extinction. International Zoo Yearbook 28(1): 103-109. [Abstract]

Kuchling, G., Dejose, J. P., Burbidge, A. A., and Bradshaw, S. D. (1992). Beyond captive breeding: the western swamp tortoise Pseudemydura umbrina recovery programme. International Zoo Yearbook 31(1): 37-41. [Abstract]

Ladyman, J. M., Kuchling, G., Burford, D., Boardman, W., & Raidal, S. R. (1998). Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina). Australian veterinary journal 76(11): 743-745. [Abstract]

Lantzke, I. R and [Lantzke?,] P. M. (1994). Rehabilitation options for Reserve A42126 for conservation of the Western Swamp Tortoise. Report to the Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Lucas, J.S. (1963). Ecology and conservation of Pseudemydura umbrina Siebenrock 1901. Honours group report, Zoology Department, University of Western Australia.

Lucas, J. S., BURBIDGE, A., GRAHAM, M., LEUNG, S., LINDGREN, E., & PHILIPS, B. (1963). Ecology and conservation of Pseudemydura umbrina SIEBENROCK 1901. Honours group report. Department of Zoology, the University of Western Australia, Perth.

McArthur, W. (1959). Terrestrial Activity of the Swamp Tortoise. Western Australian Naturalist 7(2): [pagination?].

McMilla, Peter. (1963). Birds attacking Swamp Tortoise. Western Australian Naturalist 8(6): [pagination?].

Siebenrock, F. (1907). Beschreibung und Abbildung von Pseudemydura umbrina Siebenrock und ilber ihre systematische Stellung in der Familie Chelydidae. Sitzber. Math.-Nat. KI. Akad. Wissensch., vol. 116, pp. 1205-1212.

Siebenrock, F. (1914). Eine neue Chelodina-Art aus Westaustralien. — Anz. Akad. Wiss., Wien, math.-naturwiss. Kl., Abt.1, 17: 386-387.

Spence, T., Fairfax, R. and Loach, I. (1979). The Western Australian swamp tortoise in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 19: 58-60.

Tortoise & Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. (1996). Pseudemydura umbrina. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. (https://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 04 August 2012.

Turtle Conservation Coalition [Rhodin, A.G.J., Walde, A.D., Horne, B.D., van Dijk, P.P., Blanck, T., and Hudson, R. (Eds.)]. (2011). Turtles in Trouble: The World’s 25+ Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles—2011. Lunenburg, MA: IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, Turtle Conservation Fund, Turtle Survival Alliance, Turtle Conservancy, Chelonian Research Foundation, Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society, and San Diego Zoo Global. 54 pp.

Turtle Conservation Coalition [Stanford, C.B., Rhodin, A.G.J., van Dijk, P.P., Horne, B.D., Blanck, T., Goode, E.V., Hudson, R., Mittermeier, R.A., Currylow, A., Eisemberg, C., Frankel, M., Georges, A., Gibbons, P.M., Juvik, J.O., Kuchling, G., Luiselli, L., Shi, H., Singh, S., and Walde, A. (Eds.)]. (2018). Turtles in Trouble: Te World’s 25+ Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles—2018. Ojai, CA: IUCN SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, Turtle Conservancy, Turtle Survival Alliance, Turtle Conservation Fund, Chelonian Research Foundation, Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society, and Global Wildlife Conservation. 80 pp.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [TTWG], [ Rhodin, A. G. J., van Dijk, P. P., Iverson, J. B. and Shaffer H.B.]. (2010). Turtles of the World, 2010 update: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonomy, distribution and conservation status. Chelonian Research Monographs 5(3): 000.085-000.164.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [TTWG], [ van Dijk, P. P., Iverson, J. B., Rhodin, A. G. J., Shaffer, H. B. and Bour R.]. (2014). Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonomy, distribution with maps, and conservation status. Chelonian Research Monographs 5(7): 000.392-000.479.

Webb, Joan. (2003). The Botanical Endeavour: Journey Towards a Flora of Australia. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Betty & Sons. 289 pp. [summarizes the story of this species from 1839 to 1958, when it was officially "rediscovered"]

Williams, Ernest E. (1958). Rediscovery of the Australian chelid genus Pseudemydura Siebenrock (Chelidae: Testudines). Breviora 84: 1-8, pl. 1-4.

https://theconversation.com/australian-endangered-species-western-swamp-tortoise-11630

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/aug/17/australias-rarest-tortoises-get-new-home-to-save-them-from-climate-change

https://www.communitynews.com.au/the-advocate/news/as-western-swamp-tortoise-crawls-away-from-critically-endangered-list-group-remembers-bullsbrook-man-who-saved-species-from-the-brink-of-extinction/

https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/19743/pseudemydura-umbrina

 

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