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Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pallas, 1811:305

Spectacled cormorant, Pallas’ cormorant

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Graculus perspicillatus Pallas, 1811:305; Pallasicarbo perspicillatus Pallas, 1811:305; Carbo perspicillatus Pallas, 1811:305; Compsohalieus perspicillatus Pallas, 1811:305; Urile perspicillatus Pallas, 1811:305

 

Conservation Status

Extinct

Last record: 1850 (BirdLife International, 2016)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct

 

Distribution

Bering Island, Commander Islands, Russia

 

Biology & Ecology

 

 

Hypodigm

Six stuffed specimens plus 2 incomplete skeletons exist in museum collections according to (Day, 1981). The Naturalis [url=http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/naturalis/detail.php?lang=uk&id=61]website[/url] states that seven exist:

 

"Very few specimens of the Spectacled Cormorant have been preserved. In fact, probably none would have been saved but for Governor Kuprianof of the Sitka district in Alaska. All seven museum specimens known today were sold or donated by him. The specimen in the Leiden Museum was originally shipped to the museum in St. Petersburg, which donated it to Leiden. Of the other six, two skins are stored in Tring (England), two in St. Petersburg, one in Dresden and the sixth in the museum in Helsinki."

 

[url=http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/naturalis/detail.php?lang=uk&id=61]RMNH 107.865[/url]

 

One of the stuffed specimens is in the collection of the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, a photograph of which can be seen [url=http://www.zin.ru/labs/ornithology/about.htm]here[/url] or [url=http://www.zin.ru/labs/ornithology/photos/collection-baklan.jpg]here[/url].

 

Media

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Pallas, Peter Simon. (1811). [description of Phalacrocorax perspicillatus]. Zoögraphia Rosso-Asiatica, volume 2, p. 305. [3 volume work]

 

Other references:

BirdLife International. (2008). Phalacrocorax perspicillatus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 03 July 2011.

BirdLife International. 2016. Phalacrocorax perspicillatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22696750A93584099. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22696750A93584099.en. Downloaded on 27 June 2021.

Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Greenway, J. C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. Dover Publications, New York.

Hartert, E. (1920). The birds of the Commander Islands. Novitates Zoologicae 27: 128-129, 148.

Hinds, R. B. (1843-44). The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur Under the Command of Sir Edward Belcher, 1836-42, pl. 32. Artist, J. Gould.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.

Livezey, B. C. 1992. Flightlessness in the Galápagos Cormorant Compsohalieus [Nannopterum] harrisi: heterochrony, giantism and specialization. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 105: 155-224.

Lucas, Frederic A. (1890). Description of some bones of Pallas' cormorant (Phalocrocorax perspicillatus). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 12: 88-94.

Lucas, Frederic A. (1896). Contributions to the natural history of the Commander Islands. XI. The cranium of Pallas's cormorant. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 18: 717-719.

Olson, Storrs L. (2005). Correction of erroneous records of cormorants from archeological sites in Alaska. Condor 107(4): 930-933. [corrected the misidentification of [i]Phalacrocorax perspicillatus[/i] by Siegel-Causey et. al. 1991]

Palmgren, P. (1935). Ein Exemplar von Phalocrocorax perspicillatus Pall. in den Sammlungen des Zoologischen Museums in Helsingfors. Ornis Fennica 12: 78-80.

Rothschild, Walter. (1907). Extinct Birds. pl. 39. Artist, J. G. Keulemans.

Siegel-Causey, D.; Lefevre, C. & Savinetskii, A. B. (1991). Historical diversity of cormorants and shags from Amchitka Island, Alaska. Condor' 93(4): 840–852. [an erroneous record of the species from Amchitka Island, Alaska]

Stegman, B. (1936). Ueber das Flugvermögen der ausgestorbenen Scharbe Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pall. Orn. Monatsb. 44(5): 140-153.

Stejneger, L. (1883). [Status of Pallas' cormorant]. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 6: 65.

Stejneger, L. (1890). Contributions to the history of Pallas' cormorant. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 12: 83-88.

Stejneger, L. (1925). Steller's Journal of the Sea Voyage from Kamchatka to America and Return on the Second Expedition 1741-2. Translated and part-annotated by Leonard Stejneger. American Geographical Society Research Series, no. 2.

Junya Watanabe, Hiroshige Matsuoka, and Yoshikazu Hasegawa. (2018). Pleistocene fossils from Japan show that the recently extinct Spectacled Cormorant (Phalacrocorax perspicillatus) was a relict. The Auk 135(4): 895-907. [Abstract]

Watanabe, Junya et al. (2020). Pleistocene seabirds from Shiriya, northeast Japan: systematics and oceanographic context. Historical Biology 32(5): 671-729. [Abstract]

http://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/7790/phalacrocorax-perspicillatus-spectacled-cormorant

 

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