Megadyptes antipodes waitaha Boessenkool et al., 2009:817

Waitaha penguin



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Megadyptes waitaha Boessenkool et al., 2009:817


Conservation Status


Last record: subfossil



South & Stewart Islands, New Zealand


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Boessenkool, Sanne et al. (2009). Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand. Proc. R. Soc. B 276: 815-821.


Other references:

Cole, T. L. (2019). Fire and ice: Genomic insights into the evolution, biogeography and extinction of modern penguins. Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy), University of Otago.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Rawlence, Nicholas J. et al. (2015). Radiocarbon-dating and ancient DNA reveal rapid replacement of extinct prehistoric penguins. Quaternary Science Reviews 112: 59-65. [Abstract]

Rawlence, Nicholas J., Tennyson, Alan J. D., Cole, Theresa L., Verry, Alexander J. F. and Scofield, R. Paul. (2018). Evidence for breeding of Megadyptes penguins in the North Island at the time of human arrival. Journal New Zealand Journal of Zoology 46(2): 165-173. [Abstract]

Robertson, H. A., Baird, K. A., Elliott, G. P., Hitchmough, R. A., McArthur, N. J., Makan, T. D., Miskelly, Colin M., O’Donnell, C. F. J., Sagar, P. M., Scofield, R. P., Taylor, G. A. and Michel, P. (2021). Conservation status of birds in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2021. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 36. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 43 pp.

Hugh Robertson, John Dowding, Graeme Elliott, Rod Hitchmough, Colin Miskelly, Colin O’Donnell, Ralph Powlesland, Paul Sagar, Paul Scofield, Graeme Taylor. (2013). Conservation status of New Zealand birds, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 4. 22 pp.


<< Back to the Sphenisciformes (Penguins) database