Eudyptes warhami Cole et al., 2019

Chatham Islands penguin, Chatham Islands crested penguin



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene


An unidentified penguin was encountered between 1869-1872 (Travers & Travers, 1872:221-222), which has sometimes been suggested to refer to this taxon.



Mangere Island & Pitt Island, Chatham Islands, New Zealand


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Cole, Theresa L. et al. (2019). Mitogenomes uncover extinct penguin taxa and reveal island formation as a key driver of speciation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 36(4): 784-797. [Abstract]


Other references:

Cole, Theresa L. (2019). Fire and ice: Genomic insights into the evolution, biogeography and extinction of modern penguins. Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy), University of Otago.

Holdaway, Richard N., Worthy, Trevor H. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2001). A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.

Robertson, H. A., Baird, K. A., Elliott, G. P., Hitchmough, R. A., McArthur, N. J., Makan, T. D., Miskelly, Colin M., O’Donnell, C. F. J., Sagar, P. M., Scofield, R. P., Taylor, G. A. and Michel, P. (2021). Conservation status of birds in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2021. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 36. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 43 pp.

Sutton, D. G. (1979). Island and coastal fowling strategies of the prehistoric Moriori, pp. 123-139. In: Anderson, A. (ed.). Birds of a feather. New Zealand Archaeological Association Monographs 11: BAR International. Series 62.

Tennyson, Alan J. D. (1999). Avian extinctions and fossil bones on Pitt Island, Chatham Islands. Abstracts from the 6th CAVEPS, Perth, 7-11 July, 1997. In: Baynes, Alexander and Long, John A. (eds.). Papers in vertebrate palaeontology. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 419.

Tennyson, A. J. D. and Millener, P. R. (1994). Bird extinctions and fossil bones from Mangere Island, Chatham Islands. Notornis (supplement) 41: 165-178.

Travers, H. H. and Travers, W. T. L. (1872). On the birds of the Chatham Islands, with introductory remarks on the avifauna and flora of the islands in their relation to those of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 5: 212-222.