Cyclura onchiopsis Cope, 1885

Navassa Island iguana, Navassa rhinoceros iguana



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis Cope, 1885; Cyclura nigerrima Cope, 1885; Cyclura onchiopsis Cope, 1886; Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis Schwartz & Thomas, 1975; Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis Schwartz & Carey, 1977; Cyclura onchiopsis Powell, 1999; Cyclura onchiopsis Joseph-Ouni, 2007


Conservation Status


Last record: July 1878 (Powell, 2011)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Navassa Island, Puerto Rico


Biology & Ecology




Holotype: USNM 9977

Type locality: Navassa Island


Paratype: USNM 12239

For a photograph of each of these preserved specimens see [url=]here[/url].






Original scientific description:

Cope, E. D. (1885). The large iguanas of the Greater Antilles. Amer. Nat. 19: 1005-1006.


Other references:

Barbour, T. 1937. Third list of Antilean reptiles and amphibians. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 82: 77-166.

Barbour, T. and Noble, G.K. 1916. A revision of the lizards of the genus Cyclura. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 60: 137-164 + 5 pls.

Carey, W.M. 1977. The rock iguana, Cyclura pinguis, on Anegada, British Virgin Islands, with notes on Cyclura ricordi and Cyclura cornuta. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Biological Science 19: 189-233.

Cope, E.D. 1885 [1886]. On the species of Iguaninae. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 23: 261-271.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Ekman, E.L. 1929. Plants of Navassa Island, West Indies. Arkiv för Botanik 22A(16): 1-12 + 2 pl.

Glor, R.E., Powell, R. and Parmerlee, J.S., Jr. 2000. Cyclura cornuta. Catalog of American Amphibians and Reptiles 709: 1-6.

Lemm, J. M. and Alberts, A. C. (2012). Cyclura. Elsevier / Academic Press. 221 pp.

Powell, Robert. (1999). Herpetology of Navassa Island, West Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science 35: 1-13.

Powell, Robert. (2000). Cyclura onchiopsis. Catalog of American Amphibians and Reptiles 710: 1-3.

Powell, Robert. (2010). Cyclura onchiopsis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 23 October 2011.

Powell, Robert. (2011). Cyclura onchiopsis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T173001A6955940. Downloaded on 23 June 2021.

Powell, Robert and Henderson, Robert W. (2012). Island lists of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 51(2): 85-166. [considers this taxon possibly extinct]

Powell, Robert, Ottenwalder, J.A. and Inchaustegui, S.J. 1999. The Hispaniolan herpetofauna: Diversity, endemism and historical perspectives, with comments on Navassa Island. In: Crother, B.I. (ed.), Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles, pp. 93-168. Academic press, san Diego.

Proctor, G. R. (1959). Observations on Navassa Island. Geonotes, Quarterly Journal of the Jamaica Group of the Geologists' Association 2: 49-51.

Regalado, Pedro Galán. (2015). Los Anfibios y Reptiles Extinguidos: Herpetofauna Desaparecida Desde el Año 1500. Monografías de la Universidade da Coruña 155: 1-509.

Schwartz, A. and Carey, M. 1977. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura. Studies of the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 53(173): 15–97.

Schwartz, A. and Thomas, R. 1975. A check-list of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication 1: 1-216.

Thomas, R. 1966. A reassessment of the herpetofauna of Navassa Island. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 5: 73-89.

Uetz, P. et. al., The Reptile Database, , accessed December 11, 2010.#


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