Perognathus alticola alticola Rhoads, 1894:412

San Bernardino white-eared kangaroo rat, San Bernardino white-eared pocket mouse



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Perognathus alticolus Rhoads, 1894:412 (protonym but not basionym; see below); Perognathus alticolus alticolus Rhoads, 1894:412 [orth. error]


"The species name should be Perognathus alticola. Specific epithets ending with “-cola” are either masculine or common gender in Latin even though they are first declension nouns, which are usually feminine. They are also nouns in apposition, which means that their gender (and ending) do not change to match the genus name. Perognathus alticolus should be corrected to Perognathus alticola even though the spelling in the original species description was “alticolus” (Rhoads 1894). This is an instance where the grammatical requirements of Latin require a spelling change under Article (ICZN 1999)." (Riddle et al., 2014b)


Conservation Status


Last record: 1934

IUCN RedList status: "possibly extinct"



San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino County, south-west California, USA


Biology & Ecology




Type Locality: "Squirrel Inn, 5500 ft near Little Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino Co., California" (Williams, 1986).






Original scientific description:

Rhoads, S. N. (1894 "1893"). Descriptions of new species of North American mammals with remarks on species of the genus Perognathus. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1893: 404-412.


Other references:

Baker, R.J., Bradley, L.C., Bradley, R.D., Dragoo, J.W., Engstrom, M.D., Hoffman, R.S., Jones, C.A., Reid, F., Rice, D.W. and Jones, C. (2003). Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 229: 23 pp.

Best, T. L. (1994). Perognathus alticola. Mammalian Species 463: 1-4.

Freudenthal, M. and Martín-Suárez, E. (2013). Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica 145: 1-130. [0.016-0.024 kg estimate]

Grinnell, J. (1908). The biota of the San Bernardino Mountains. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 5: 1-170.

Grinnell, J. (1933). Review of the Recent mammal fauna of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 40: 71-284.

ICZN (INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE). (1999). International code of zoological nomenclature. 4th ed. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature and The Natural History Museum, London.

Ingles, L. G. (1965). Mammals of the Pacific states. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California, 506 pp.

Jones, J. Knox Jnr., Carter, Dilford C., Genoways, Hugh H., Hoffmann, Robert S. and Rice, Dale W. (1986). Revised Checklist of North American Mammals North of Mexico, 1986. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Texas Tech University 107: 1-22.

Linzey, A. V. and NatureServe (Hammerson, G.). (2008). Perognathus alticolus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 07 April 2013.

Naylor, L. and Roach, N. (2017). Perognathus alticola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T16631A22224213. Accessed on 29 May 2023.

Osgood. (1900). [first discussion as P. alticola]. N. Amer. Fauna, 18:39. ["amended the spelling without comment" (Williams, 1986:40)]

Riddle, Brett R. et al. (2014a). Cryptic divergence and revised species taxonomy within the Great Basin pocket mouse, Perognathus parvus (Peale, 1848), species group. Journal of Mammalogy 95(1): 9-25.

Riddle, Brett R. et al. (2014b). Erratum and Nomenclature Committee Opinion on use of Perognathus alticola versus P. alticolus. Journal of Mammalogy 95(4): 910.

Riddle, Brett R. et al. (2023). Correction to: Erratum and Nomenclature Committee Opinion on use of Perognathus alticola versus P. alticolus. Journal of Mammalogy.

Stephens, F. (1906). California mammals. West Coast Publ. Co., San Diego. 351 pp.

Sulentich, J. M. (1983). The systematics and evolution of the Perognathus parvus species group in southern California (Rodentia: Heteromyidae). UnPubl. M.S. thesis, California State Univ., Long Beach, 97 pp. ["searched extensively for White-eared Pocket Mice, starting in June of 1979 and using pitfalls and livetraps" (Williams, 1986:39)]

Williams, Daniel F. (1979). Checklist of California mammals. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 48: 425-433.

Williams, Daniel F. (1986). Mammalian Species of Special Concern in California. Prepared for the state of California, the Resources Agency, Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA 95814. vi + 100 pp.

Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (1993). Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.


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