Leucadendron spirale (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams

Wolseley conebush



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Chasme spiralis Salisb. ex Knight; Leucadendron scabrum R.Br.


Conservation Status

Extinct (Humphreys et al., 2019; Albani Rocchetti et al., 2022)

Last record: 1933

IUCN RedList status: Extinct


This species has been identified as one of the 50 best candidates for de-extinction, ranking 34/50 (Albani Rocchetti et al., 2022).



Breede River Valley between Wolseley and Botha, Western Cape Province, South Africa


Biology & Ecology










Albani Rocchetti, G., Carta, A., Mondoni, A. et al. (2022). Selecting the best candidates for resurrecting extinct-in-the-wild plants from herbaria. Nature Plants 8: 1385-1393. [Supplementary Tables S1-S6]

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hall, A.V. & Veldhuis, H.A. (1985). South African red data book: 1-160. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Humphreys, Aelys M., Govaerts, Rafaël, Ficinski, Sarah Z., Lughadha, Eimear Nic and Vorontsova, Maria S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Abstract] [Supplementary Dataset 1]

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Helme, N.A., Holmes, P.M., Forshaw, C.N., Richardson, S.H., Raimondo, D., Euston-Brown, D.I.W., Victor, J.E., Foden, W., Ebrahim, I., Bomhard, B., Oliver, E.G.H., Johns, A., van der Venter, J., van der Walt, R., von Witt, C., Low, A.B., Paterson-Jones, C., Rourke, J.P., Hitchcock, A.N., Potter, L., Vlok, J.H. & Pillay, D. 2006. Leucadendron spirale (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2017.1. Accessed on 2017/06/07.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2020. Leucadendron spirale. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T113166006A185559739. Downloaded on 27 June 2021.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Walter, Kerry S. and Gillett, Harriet J. (eds.). (1998). 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK: IUCN – The World Conservation Union. lxiv + 862 pp.


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