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Campephilus principalis principalis Linnaeus, 1758

Ivory-billed woodpecker

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

 

 

Conservation Status

Extinct

Last record: April 1944 (northeastern Louisiana)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)

 

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker has received considerable media attention in the past decade as news of its supposed rediscovery spread around the world. However, no live specimens have been captured in the 60 years since the last confirmed sighting, and all purported evidence for its continued existence is unconfirmed. 6 birds were supposedly seen in 1960 (Scott, 1965:208)

 

Distribution

Arkansas, Florida & Louisiana, USA

 

Biology & Ecology

Co-extinction:

Mironov, S. V., Dabert, J. and Ehrnsberger, R. (2005). A New Species of the Feather Mite Genus Pterotrogus Gaud (Analgoidea: Pteronyssidae) from the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis L. (Aves: Piciformes). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98(1): 13-17. [Abstract]

 

Hypodigm

According to the Leiden Museum, more than 400 Ivory-billed woodpecker specimens are in museum collections around the world. This includes both known subspecies. Of this subspecies, 32 are in the Field Museum, Chicago (erroneously said to be the most of any museum), and 30 in the American Museum of Natural History, New York. In addition to these figures, 69 are in the MCZ's ornithological collection, Harvard University, and 1 in the Leiden Museum's collection itself. That accounts for 132 specimens. The rest are probably scattered around the world, perhaps having been exchanged as often happens with "excess" material for new material from elsewhere.

 

69 specimens are held in the MCZ's ornithological collection, Harvard University:

Ornithology 5222 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 5399 (female)

Ornithology 220015 (female)

Ornithology 228963 (female)

Ornithology 244406 (female)

Ornithology 43261 (female)

Ornithology 206756 (male)

Ornithology 110842 (male)

Ornithology 244405 (female)

Ornithology 302185 (female)

Ornithology 226285 (male)

Ornithology 47977 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 302189 (male)

Ornithology 110843 (female)

Ornithology 135377 (female)

Ornithology 43262 (female)

Ornithology 171769 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 226286 (female)

Ornithology 47772 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 302190 (male)

Ornithology 302182 (male)

Ornithology 181795 (male)

Ornithology 88801 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 333418 (female)

Ornithology 43259 (male)

Ornithology 302186 (female)

Ornithology 302183 (male)

Ornithology 302181 (male)

Ornithology 244153 (female)

Ornithology 226578 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 242087 (male)

Ornithology 206757 (female)

Ornithology 302184 (female)

Ornithology 245754 (male)

Ornithology 75413 (male)

Ornithology 181793 (female)

Ornithology 135376 (male)

Ornithology 35889 (female)

Ornithology 201214 (male)

Ornithology 244404 (male)

Ornithology 166768 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 328601 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 226577 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 181794 (female)

Ornithology 226579 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 166767 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 47771 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 43260 (male)

Ornithology 244151 (female)

Ornithology 328589 (male)

Ornithology 201215 (female)

Ornithology 244150 (female)

Ornithology 302188 (female)

Ornithology 90337 (female)

Ornithology 35888 (male)

Ornithology 244403 (male)

Ornithology 100763 (female)

Ornithology 187624 (female)

Ornithology 226580 (sex unspecified)

Ornithology 254755 (female)

Ornithology 71851 (male)

Ornithology 253499 (female)

Ornithology 100762 (male)

Ornithology 253498 (male)

Ornithology 242972 (female)

Ornithology 302187 (male)

Ornithology 58332 (female)

Ornithology 90336 (male)

 

For further details search "Campephilus principalis principalis" at http://mczbase.mcz.harvard.edu/SpecimenSearch.cfm

 

1 specimen is in the Leiden Museum:

RMNH 110.096 (male)

 

Media

 

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Linnaeus, Carolus. (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis. Stockholm, Sweden.

 

Other references:

Agey, H. N. and Heinzmann, G. M. (1971a). The Ivory-billed Woodpecker Found in Central Florida. Florida Naturalist 44(3): 46-47, 64.

Agey, H. N. and Heinzmann, G. M. (1971b). Ivory-billed Woodpeckers in Florida. Birding 3: 43.

Allen, Arthur A. (1924). Vacationing with Birds. Bird-Lore.

Allen, Arthur A. and Kellogg, P. Paul. (1937). Recent observations on the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Auk 54(2): 164-184.

Anonymous. (1964). List of rare birds, including those thought to be so but of which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 10(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

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Baird, S.F., Brewer, T.M., Ridgway, R. 1974. History ofNorth American Birds Volume II. Arno Press, Inc: New York.

Bales, Stephen L. (2010). Ghost Birds: Jim Tanner and the Quest for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, 1935-1941. Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press.

Bendire, C.E. 1974. Life Histories ofNorth American Birds Volume II. Arno Press, Inc: New York.

Bent, A. C. (1939). Life histories of North American woodpeckers. U.S. Natl. Mus.  Bull., 174: 1-334.

Beyer, George  C. (1900).  The Ivory-billed Woodpecker in Louisiana. Auk 17: 97-99.

BirdLife International. (2012). Campephilus principalis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 22 August 2013.

Bivings, A. E. (2006). Rediscovery and recovery of the ivory-billed woodpecker. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(6): 1495-1496.

Boyle, Gerry. (2005). The Search for the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: Sara Barker and a team of researchers find conclusive evidence that brings the ivory-billed woodpecker back from 'extinction'. Colby Magazine 94(3): Article 7.

Brook, Barry W., Buettel, Jessie C. and Jarić, Ivan. (Accepted). A fast re‐sampling method for using reliability ratings of sightings with extinction‐date estimators. Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2787 [Abstract]

Casillas-Orona, Federico Moctezuma. (2005). The Imperial Woodpecker, Campephilus imperialis (Gould, 1832). Short paper published online; June, 2005.

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Charif, R. A.; Cortopassi, K. A.; Fristrup, K.M.; Figueroa, H. K.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Fitzpatrick, J.W. (2005). Status of recent acoustic research for Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

Christy, B. (1943). The Vanishing Ivory-bill. Audubon 45(2): 99-102.

Collins, Michael D. (2011). Putative audio recordings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129(3): 1626-1630.

Collins, Michael D. (2017a). Video evidence and other information relevant to the conservation of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). Heliyon 3(1): e00230.

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Collins, Michael D. (2020). Application of image processing to evidence for the persistence of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). Scientific Reports 10: 14616.

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Collins, Michael D. (2021b). Supplementary material. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6460803

Collins, Michael D. (2022). Video footage of five events consistent with the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) but no other species. Unpublished.

Collinson, J. Martin. (2007). Video analysis of the escape flight of Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus: does the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis persist in continental North America? BMC Biology 5: 8, 1-9 pp. [Additional File]

Cooper, R.J., R.S. Mordecai, B.J. Mattsson, N.P Nibbelink, K.W. Stodola, M.J. Conroy, J.T. Peterson, J.P. Runge, and C.T. Moore. 2006. A proposed approach for implementing a region-wide search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters. University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (2007a). New guidelines for Ivory-billed Woodpecker searches in the 2007–2008 season: Recommendations from Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (2007b). Ivory-bill acoustics. Available online: http://www.birds.cornell.edu/ivory/folder.2010-04-20.79999625500

Dalton, Rex. (2005a). Sighting of ‘extinct’ bird may have been a case of mistaken identity. Nature 436(7050): 447.

Dalton, Rex. (2005b). Ornithology: A wing and a prayer. Nature 437: 188-190.

Dalton, Rex. (2010). Still looking for that woodpecker. Nature 463(7282): 718-719.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Dennis, John V. (1967). The Ivory-bill Still Flies. Audubon 69(6): 38-44.

Dennis, John V. (1979). The Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Avicultural Magazine 85: 75-84.

Dennis, John V. (1984). A Tale of Two Woodpeckers. Living Bird Quarterly 3: 18-21.

Dennis, John V. (1988). The Great Cypress Swamps. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Eastman, W. H. (1949). Hunting for ivory bills in the big cypress. Florida Naturalist 22: 79-80.

Eckelberry, Donald. (1961). Search for the Rare Ivory-bill. In: Terres, J. K. (ed.). Discovery: Great Moments in the Lives of Outstanding Naturalists. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Ehrlich, Paul R., Dobkin, David S. and Wheye, Darryl. (1988). The Birder's Handbook: A Field Guide to the Natural History of North American Birds. New York: Simon and Schuster. [includes an essay entitled "Disappearing Ivorybill" on pp. 357,359 (pbk.)]

Ehrlich, Paul R., Dobkin, David S. and Wheye, Darryl. (1992). Birds in Jeopardy: The Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 259 pp.

Elphick, Chris S., Roberts, David L. and Reed, J. Michael. (2010). Estimated dates of recent extinctions for North American and Hawaiian birds. Biological Conservation 143: 617-624.

Fitzpatrick, J. W., et al. (2005). Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) persists in continental North America. Science 308: 1460–1462.

Fitzpatrick, J. W., M. Lammertink, M. D. Luneau, Jr., T. W. Gallagher, and K. V. Rosenberg. (2006a). Response to comment on “Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) persists in continental North America.” Science 311: 1555b.

Fitzpatrick J. W., M. Lammertink, M. D. Luneau, Jr., T. W. Gallagher, B. R. Harrison, G. M. Sparling, K. V. Rosenberg, R. W. Rohrbaugh, E. C. H. Swarthout, P. H. Wrege, S. B. Swarthout, M. S. Dantzker, R. A. Charif, T. R. Barksdale, J. V. Remsen, Jr., S. D. Simon, and D. Zollner. (2006b). Clarifications about current research on the status of Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) in Arkansas. Auk 123: 587–593.

Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Lammertink, M.; Luneau, M. D.; Rosenberg, K. V.; Gallagher, T. W.; Rohrbaugh, R. W. (2007). Response to "Ivory-billed or Pileated Woodpecker?". Science 315(5818): 1497.

Fleischer, Robert C. et al. (2006). Mid-Pleistocene divergence of Cuban and North American ivory-billed woodpeckers. Biology Letters 2: 466-469.

Floyd, T. (2007). The Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Birding 39:26.

Fuller, Errol. (2013). Lost Animals: Extinction and the Photographic Record. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Gabrielson, Ira N., Griscom, Ludlow and Lloyd, Hoyes. (1954). Report of the American Ornithologists' Union Advisory Committee on Bird Protection. Auk 71(2): 186-190. [unconfirmed report from 3 March 1950]

Gallagher, Tim. (2005). The grail bird: hot on the trail of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Boston, Massachussetts: Houghton Mifflin.

Gotelli, N. J. Chao, A. Colwell, R. K. Hwang, W. H. Graves, G. R. (2012). Specimen-Based Modeling, Stopping Rules, and the Extinction of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker. Conservation Biology 26(1): 47-56. [Abstract]

Gouraud, Christophe. (2014). Extinct and endangered species and subspecies of birds in the Baillon Collection, La Châtre, France. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 183(3): 29-38.

Gundlach, J. (1856). [Campephilus principalis principalis]. Journ. für Orn. 4: 102.

Halliday, T. (1978). Vanishing Birds: Their Natural History and Conservation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Hardy, J. W. (1975). A Tape Recording of a Possible Ivory-billed Woodpecker Call. American Birds 29: 647-651.

Hasbrouck, E.M. 1891. The present status of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). Auk 8:174-186.

Hayes, Floyd E. and Hayes, William K. (2007). The great Ivory-billed Woodpecker debate: Perceptions of the evidence. Birding March/April 2007: 36-41.

Hill, Geoffrey E. (2007). Ivorybill Hunters: The Search For Proof in a Flooded Wilderness. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 260 pp. [Available from Andrew Isles Natural History Books]

Hill, G. E. (2008). Book review: An alternative hypothesis for the cause of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker's decline, by Noel F. Snyder. Condor 110(4): 808-810.

Hill, G. E., D. J. Mennill, B. W. Rolek, T. L. Hicks, and K. A. Swiston. (2006). Evidence suggesting that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers (Campephilus principalis) exist in Florida. Avian Conservation and Ecology - Écologie et conservation des oiseaux 1(3): 2. [online] URL: http://www.ace-eco.org/vol1/iss3/art2/

Hoose, Phillip. (2004). The Race to Save the Lord God Bird. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Hoose, Phillip. (2014). The Race to Save the Lord God Bird, revised and updated. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Hudon, Daniel. (2013). The Extinction Stories: The Ivory-Bill Woodpecker. Canary 22(Fall/Autumn): [pagination?].

Jackson, Jerome A. (1991). Will-o'-the-wisp. Living Bird Quarterly 10(1): 29-32.

Jackson, Jerome A. (2002a). Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). In: The birds of North America, no. 711 (A. Poole, and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Jackson, Jerome A. (2002b). The Truth Is Out There. Birder's World 16(3): 40-47.

Jackson, Jerome A. (2004). In Search of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Smithsonian Books, Washington DC. [This first edition of the book was published before the supposed rediscovery of this species in 2005]

Jackson, Jerome A. (2006). In Search of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, second edition. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 322 pp, [Smithsonia Books?]. [Available from Andrew Isles Natural History Books]

Jackson, Jerome A. (2006a). Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis): hope, and the interfaces of science, conservation, and politics. Auk 123: 1-15.

Jackson, Jerome A. (2006b). The public perception of science and reported confirmation of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in Arkansas. Auk 123: 1185-1189.

Jansen, Justin J. F. (2015). The bird collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France: the first years (1793-1825). Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 184(5): 81-111.

Jouanin, Christian. (1962). Inventaire des oiseaux éteints ou en voie d’extinction conservés au Muséum de Paris. Terre et Vie 109: 275-301.

Keith, G. S. (1983). The little-known status and distribution of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Auklet 1983: 1–7.

Kennard, Frederic H. (1915). On the Trail of the Ivory-Bill. The Auk 32(1): 1-14.

Kodikara, Saritha et al. (2020). Inferring Extinction Year using a Bayesian Approach. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13408 [Abstract]

Kodikara, Saritha et al. (2020). Inferring extinction date of a species using non‐homogeneous Poisson processes with a change‐point. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13542 [Abstract]

Koenig, W. D.(2005). Persistence in adversity: lessons from the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Bioscience 55: 646-647.

Krupa, James J. (2014). Scientific Method & Evolutionary Theory Elucidated by the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Story. The American Biology Teacher 76(3): 160-170. [Abstract]

Short, Lester L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the World. Greenville: Delaware Museum of Natural History. 676 pp. [relevant citation?]

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Lutz, Diana. (2004). [Book review of The Race to Save the Lord God Bird by Phillip Hoose]. Natural History 113(10): 51.

Lynch M., 2011: Credibility, evidence, and discovery: the case of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. – Ethnographic Studies 12: 78-105.

Mackenzie, John P. S. (1977). Birds in Peril: A Guide to the Endangered Birds of the United States and Canada. Toronto: Pagurian Press.

Mattsson, B. J., R. S. Mordecai, M. J. Conroy, J. T. Peterson, R. J. Cooper, and H. Christensen. (2008). Evaluating the small population paradigm for rare large-bodied woodpeckers, with implications for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Avian Conservation and Ecology - Écologie et conservation des oiseaux 3(2): 5. [online] URL: http://www.ace-eco.org/vol3/iss2/art5/

McKenna, Phil. (2004). [Book review of The Race to Save the Lord God Bird by Phillip Hoose]. Audubon 106(4): 74.

von Mehren, Laurie. (2004). [Book review of The Race to Save the Lord God Bird by Phillip Hoose]. School Library Journal 50(9): 227.

Mendenhall, Matt. (2005). Old Friend Missing. Birder's World 2005(6): 35–39.

Mironov, S. V., Dabert, J. and Ehrnsberger, R. (2005). A New Species of the Feather Mite Genus Pterotrogus Gaud (Analgoidea: Pteronyssidae) from the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis L. (Aves: Piciformes). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98(1): 13-17. [Abstract]

Moskwik, Matthew et al. (2013). Search Efforts for Ivory-Billed Woodpecker in South Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 12(1): 73-84. [Abstract]

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Smith, Nora. (2008). Extinct and Extirpated Birds and Mammals of Arkansas. Honors Theses. Paper 74.

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Snyder, Noel F. R. et al. (2009). The Travails of Two Woodpeckers: Ivory-Bills and Imperials. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

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Weidensaul, Scott. (2002). The Ghost with Trembling Wings. New York: North Point Press.

Wetmore, Alexander. (1943). Evidence of the former occurrence of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in Ohio. Wilson Bulletin 55(1): 55.

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Wilcove, D. S. (2005). Rediscovery of the ivory-billed woodpecker. Science 308: 1422-1423.

Wiley, R. Haven. (1970). Audubon's Kentucky birds, including the Ivory-billed woodpecker. The Kentucky Warbler 46(2): 27-36.

Williams, J. J. (2001). Ivory-billed Dreams, Ivory-billed Reality. Birding 33: 514-522.

http://www.birds.cornell.edu/ivory/evidence/segments/analysis_preface

http://projectcoyoteibwo.com/

http://projectcoyoteibwo.com/2015/12/14/tanner-and-population-density/

https://www.dl-online.com/sports/outdoors/4415392-are-ivory-billed-woodpeckers-back-dead

http://www.bemidjipioneer.com/sports/4415475-mystery-continues-ivory-billed-woodpecker

https://www.aikenstandard.com/lifestyle/ecoviews-ivory-billed-woodpeckers-have-a-replacement/article_97c96a1c-6f46-11e8-9e15-07ea0a8cea88.html

http://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/6343/campephilus-principalis-ivory-billed-woodpecker

 

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