Campephilus principalis bairdii Cassin, 1863

Cuban ivory-billed woodpecker



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 16 March 1987

IUCN status: Critically Endangered


Only twelve or thirteen birds were reported in 1956 (Scott, 1965).





Biology & Ecology




RMNH 110.097 (female)






Original scientific description:

Cassin, John. (1863). Notes on the Picidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 15: 322.


Other references:

Anonymous. (1964). List of rare birds, including those thought to be so but of which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 10(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

BirdLife International. (2012). Campephilus principalis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 27 January 2013.

Dennis, John V. (1948). A Last Remnant of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers in Cuba. Auk 65(4): 497-507.

Dennis, John V. (1984). A Tale of Two Woodpeckers. Living Bird Quarterly 3: 18-21.

Dennis, John V. (1987). Davis Crompton and the Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Bird Watcher's Digest 9(4): 18-25.

Estrada, Alberto R. (2014). Looking for the Ivory-billed-Woodpecker in eastern Cuba. Self published.

Fleischer, Robert C. et al. (2006). Mid-Pleistocene divergence of Cuban and North American ivory-billed woodpeckers. Biology Letters 2: 466-469.

Gallagher, Tim. (2013). Imperial Dreams: Tracking the Imperial Woodpecker Through the Wild Sierra Madre. New York: Atria Books. 277 pp.

ISC Newsletter, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 3-5.

Lamb, George R. (1957). The Ivory-billed Woodpecker in Cuba. New York: International Committee for Bird Preservation, Pan-American Section (Res. Rep. 1).

Lammertink, Martjan. (1992). Search for Ivory-billed Woodpecker in Cuba. Dutch Birding 14: 170-173.

Lammertink, Martjan. (1995). No More Hope or the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Cotinga 3: 45-47.

Lammertink, Martjan and Estrada, Alberto R. (1995). Status of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Cuba: almost certainly extinct. Bird Conservation International 5: 53-60.

McNeely, J. W. (1992). 1992 Ivory-billed Woodpecker Expedition Report. Unpublished.

Mittermeier, John C. et al. (2022). Fantastic lost birds and how you can help find them: an updated gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding 31: 25-32.

Moser, Don. (1972). The Last Ivory-bill. Life 72(13): 52-62.

Pacheco, Nils Navarro. (2018). Annotated checklist of the birds of Cuba. Ediciones Nuevos Mundos.

Reynard, G. (1988). Bird songs in Cuba. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Short, Lester L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the World. Greenville: Delaware Museum of Natural History. 676 pp.

Short, Lester L. (1985). Last chance for the Ivorybill. Natural History 94(8): 66-68.

Short, Lester L. and Horne, J. F. M. (1986). The Ivorybill still lives. Nat. Hist. 95(7): 26-28.

Short, Lester L. and Horne, J. F. M. (1990). The Ivory-billed Woodpecker - the costs of specialization. In: Carlson, A. and Aulén, G. (eds.). Conservation and management of woodpecker populations. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife Ecology.

Winkler, H. and Christie, D.A. (2001). Family Picidae (Woodpeckers). In Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal eds). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.