Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus Heude, 1892

Vietnamese Javan rhino(ceros)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 29 April 2010

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered
The last known individual, in the Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, was found dead in April 2010. The species was jointly [url=]declared[/url] officially extinct by the WWF (World Wildlife Fund) and IRF (International Rhino Foundation).



Cambodia, Laos, Thailand (eastern) & Vietnam


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Heude, P. M. (1892). E´ tude sur les suillens. Chapitre II. Me´moires Concernant l’Histoire Naturelle de l’Empire Chinois par des Pe´res de la Compagnie de Jesus 2: 85-115 + plates XIX–XXIX.


Other references:

AsRSG (Asian Rhino Specialist Group) (2000). Action Plan 2000/2010 for the Preservation of the Vietnamese Rhino in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Bacon, Anne-Marie et al. (2018). A rhinocerotid-dominated megafauna at the MIS6-5 transition: The late Middle Pleistocene Coc Muoi assemblage, Lang Son province, Vietnam. Quaternary Science Reviews 186: 123-141. [Abstract]

Brook, Sara, Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter, Mahood, Simon and Long, Barney. (2011). Extinction of the Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) from Vietnam. WWF Report, 44 pp. [Warning: 11.86 MB file]

Brook, Sarah Maria et al. (2012). Integrated and novel survey methods for rhinoceros populations confirm the extinction of Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus from Vietnam. Biological Conservation 155: 59-67.

Brook, Sarah Maria et al. (2014). Lessons learned from the loss of a flagship: The extinction of the Javan rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus from Vietnam. Biological Conservation 174: 21-29. [Abstract]

Deuve, J. (1972). Les mammifères du Laos. Vientiane: Ministère de l’éducation nationale.

Fernando P, Polet G, Foead N, Ng LS, Pastorini J, Melnick DJ. 2006. Genetic diversity, phylogeny and conservation of the Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus). Conservation Genetics 7: 439-448.

Groves, Colin. (1995). Why the Cat Loc Rhinos are Javan. Asian Rhinos 2: 8-9.

Groves, Colin P. and Guerin, C. (1980). Le Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) d’Indochine: distinction taxinomique et anatomique; relations phyletiques. Ge´obios 13: 199-208.

Groves, Colin P. and Leslie Jr., David M. (2011). Rhinoceros sondaicus (Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae). Mammalian Species 43(887): 190-208.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Manh, Bui Huu. (2001). Rhino Patrol and Monitoring Units Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: Results of Rhino Survey August to December 2001. Technical Report No. 1. WWF Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Manh, Bui Huu. (2002). Rhino Patrol and Monitoring Units Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: Results of Rhino Survey June and July 2002. Technical Report No. 4. WWF Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Mouhot, H. (1864). Travels in the central parts of Indo-China (Siam), Cambodia and Laos, during the years 1858, 1859, and 1860, II. London: John Murray

Neese, H. C. (1975). Survival of the Javan Rhinoceros in Laos. Unpubl. report to New York Zoological Society.

Nguyen, Van Thanh, Polet, G. (2007). Monitoring of Javan Rhinoceros in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam July–December 2006. WWF – Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategy in Vietnam, Cat Tien National Park, AREAS Technical Report No. 11, Vietnam.

Polet, G., Tran Van Mui, Nguyen Xuan Dang, Bui Huu Manh and Mike Baltzer (1999): The Javan Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus, of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: Current status and management implications in Pachyderm 27: 34-48.

Poston, L. (2010). Javan rhino found dead in Vietnam. World Wildlife Fund press release, Washington, D.C.,

Rookmaaker, L. C. (1980). The distribution of the rhinoceros in eastern India, Bangladesh, China, and the Indo-Chinese region. Zool. Anz., Jena 205: 253-268.

Santiapillai, C., Giao, P. M. and Dung, V. V. (1993). Conservation and management of Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus) in Vietnam. Tiger Paper 20:7–15.

Schaller, G. B., Dang, N. X., Thuy, L. D. and Son, V. T. (1990). Javan rhinoceros in Vietnam. Oryx 24(2): 77-80. [Abstract]

Streicher, U., Newcomer, E., McCarty, D., Brook, S. and Bach Thanh Hai. (2010). Examination of a dead Javan rhinoceros, Cat Tien National Park Vietnam. WWF-Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam

van Strien, N.J., Steinmetz, R., Manullang, B., Sectionov, Han, K.H., Isnan, W., Rookmaaker, K., Sumardja, E., Khan, M.K.M. & Ellis, S. (2008). Rhinoceros sondaicus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 22 October 2011.

Vuong Duy Lap, Phan Quoc Vinh, Lai Van Kiet, Le Van Tan and David Murphy (2004). Monitoring of Javan rhinoceros in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Cat Tien National Park Conservation Project, AREAS technical report no. 8.


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