Geronticus eremita (Linnaeus, 1758)

Northern bald ibis, Hermit ibis, or Waldrapp



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status




North Africa


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Linnaeus, Carolus. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius).


Other references:

Boev, Zlatozar et al. (2020). First record of the northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita (Linnaeus, 1758) in Bulgaria. Historia naturalis bulgarica 41: 23-26.

Böhm, Christiane et al. (2020). The northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita: history, current status and future perspectives. Oryx. doi:10.1017/S0030605320000198

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292.

Schenker, Andre and Serra, Gianluca. (2021). Review of historical breeding sites of the Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremita in Syria and south-eastern Turkey. Bird Conservation International. doi: [Abstract]

Wehner, Helena, Huchler, Katharina and Fritz, Johannes. (2022). Quantification of Foraging Areas for the Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita) in the Northern Alpine Foothills: A Random Forest Model Fitted with Optical and Actively Sensed Earth Observation Data. Remote Sens. 14(4): 1015.


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