Bostrychia bocagei (Chapin, 1923)

Dwarf ibis, Dwarf olive ibis, São Tomé ibis



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record: 1928 (Collar & Stuart, 1985; Jones & Tye, 2006)

Rediscovered in 1990 (Atkinson et al., 1991)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



São Tomé and Príncipe


Biology & Ecology







A very rare photograph of this species:



Original scientific description:

(Chapin) 1923 Am.Mus.Novit. no.84 p.5 fig.2A,3A

Other references:

Anon. 2011. Oil palm concession threatens São Tomé endemics. Wordl Birdwatch 33(3): 7.

Atkinson, P. W., Peet, N. B. and Alexander, J. (1991). The status and conservation of the endemic bird species of Sao Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa. Bird Conservation International 1: 255-282.

Barros, N. (2013). Mapping a palm oil company's effect on local biodiversity in São Tomé and Príncipe. BirdLife Africa Newsletter 13(7): 13.

BirdLife International. (2016). Bostrychia bocagei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22697478A93615797. Downloaded on 13 February 2017.

Borrow, N. and Demey, R. (2001). Birds of Western Africa. London: Christopher Helm.

Lo Cascio, Pietro. (2021). Ornithological observations from São Tomé and Príncipe islands (Gulf of Guinea, West Africa). Biodiversity Journal 12(4): 765-775.

Christy, P. and Clarke, W. V. (1998). Guide des Oiseaux de Sao Tome et Principe. ECOFAC, Sao Tome.

Collar, Nigel J. and Butchart, Stuart H. M. (2013). Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook 48(1): 7-28.

Collar Nigel J. and Stuart, S. N. (1985). Threatened Birds of Africa and related islands. ICBP–IUCN, Cambridge.

Dallimer, M., King, T. and Atkinson, R. J. (2009). Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, West Africa. Animal Conservation 12: 209-219.

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. (1992). Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Jones, P. J. and Tye, A. (2006). The birds of São Tomé & Príncipe with Annobón, islands of the Gulf of Guinea. B.O.U. Checklist Series 22, BOU-BOC, Oxford.

Maia, H., Gascoigne, A., de Deus, D. and de Lima, R. F. (2014). Notes on the breeding ecology and conservation of the Critically Endangered Dwarf Olive Ibis Bostrychia bocagei. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 21(2): 202-205.

Melo, M., Jones, P. J. and de Lima, R. F. (2022). The Avifauna of the Gulf of Guinea Oceanic Islands, pp. 555-592. In: Ceríaco, L.M.P., de Lima, R.F., Melo, M., Bell, R.C. (eds.). Biodiversity of the Gulf of Guinea Oceanic Islands. Springer, Cham.

Olmos, F. and Turshak, L. (2007). Final report on the fact-finding trip to Angola and Sao Tome and Principe July-August 2007.

Ward-Francis, A., Costa, L., Sampaio, H. and Lima, R. (2015). Reducing the extinction risk of the three Critically Endangered birds of São Tomé. Interim Report AFR-1411 - F14AP00529. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves, University of Lisbon.


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