Lottia alveus (Conrad, 1831)

Eelgrass limpet



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Patella alveus Conrad, 1831 (original combination); Acmaea alveus (Conrad, 1831); Collisella alveus (Conrad, 1831)


Conservation Status

Extinct (Régnier et al., 2009; Cowie et al., 2017)

Last record: 1929 (Carlton, 2023); 1933?

IUCN RedList status: Extinct


This species went extinct due to the decline of eel grass, which suffered from wasting disease as a result of a particular slime mold.



Canada (Labrador) & USA (Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York)


Biology & Ecology




ANSP  39044






Original scientific description:

Conrad, T. A. (1831). Descriptions of fifteen new species of Recent, three of fossil shells, chiefly from the coast of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6(2): 256-268, plate 11.


Other references:

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Bouchet, P. (1996a). Lottia alveus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. ( Downloaded on 27 January 2012.

Bouchet, P. 1996b. Lottia alveus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T12382A3339013. Accessed on 18 June 2022.

Brunel, P., Bosse, L. and Lamarche, G. (1998). Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 pp.

Carlton, James T. (1993). Neoextinctions of Marine Invertebrates. American Zoologist 33(6): 499-509.

Carlton, James T. (2023). Marine Invertebrate Neoextinctions: An Update and Call for Inventories of Globally Missing Species. Diversity 15(6): 782.

Carlton, JT, Geller, JB, Reaka-Kudla, ML and Norse, EA (1999) Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30, 515–538.

Carlton, James T., Vermeij, G. J., Lindberg, D. R., Carlton, D.A., Dudley, E. C. (1991). The first historical extinction of a marine invertebrate in an ocean basin—the demise of the eelgrass limpet Lottia alveus. Biological Bulletin 180(1): 72-80.

Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Dali, W. H. (1914). Notes on some northwest coast acmaeas. Nautilus 28: 13-15.

del Monte-Luna, P, Lluch-Belda, D, Serviere-Zaragoza, E, Carmona, R, Reyes-Bonilla, H, Aurioles-Gamboa, D, Castro-Aguirre, JL, del Próo SA, G, Trujillo-Millán, O and Brook, BW (2007) Marine extinctions revisited. Fish and Fisheries 8(2), 107–122.

del Monte-Luna, Pablo et al. (2023). A review of recent and future marine extinctions. Cambridge Prisms: Extinction 1: e13.

Dulvy, Nicholas K., Pinnegar, John K. and Reynolds, John D. (2009). Holocene extinctions in the sea, pp. 129-150. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Dulvy, NK, Sadovy, Y and Reynolds, JD (2003) Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries 4(1), 25–64.

Gould, Stephen Jay. (1993). Eight Little Piggies. W. W. Norton & Co. 479 pp.

Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Holm, G. (2002). Collecting Lottia alveus (Conrad, 1831) in Boundary Bay, British Columbia. Dredgings 42: 1-4.

Jackson, H. (1907). The differences between the two New England species of Acmuea. Nautilus 21: 1-5, 24.

Lindberg, David R. (1986). Name changes in the “Acmaeidae.” Veliger 29: 142-148.

McLean, J. H. (1966). West American prosobranch Gastropoda: superfamilies Patellacea, Pleurotomariacea, and Fissurellacea. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Morse, E. S. (1910). An early stage of Acmaea. Proc. BOX Sot. Natl. Hist. 34: 3 13-323.

Morse, E. S. (1921). Observations on the Living Gasteropods of New England. Peabody Museum, Salem, Massachusetts. Moskalev, L. I. 1967. Collisella angusta, n. sp. Pp. 18.

Moskalev, L. I. (1967). Collisella angusta, n. sp. pp. 18-19 in A. N. Golikov and O. A. Scarlato. Molluscs of the Possiet Bay (the Sea of Japan) and their ecology. Trudy Zoo/. Inst. Leningrad 42: 5-154 (in Russian).

Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît and Bouchet, Philippe. (2009). Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214-1221.

Sumner, F. B., R. C. Osburn, and L. J. Cole. (1913). A biological survey of the waters of Woods Hole and vicinity. Section III. A catalogue of the marine fauna. Bull. Bur. Fisheries 31: 545-794.

Wolff, WJ (2000) The south-eastern North Sea: Losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years. Biological Conservation 95, 209–217.,%20B.C..pdf


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