Nymphaea thermarum Eb.Fisch.

Pygmy Rwandan water lily



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild

Last record: 1987?

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild



Mashyuza, Rwanda (southwest)


Biology & Ecology










Fischer, Eberhard. (1993). Taxonomic results of the BRYOTROP-Expedition to Zaire and Rwanda. Tropical Bryology 8: 13-37.

Fischer, E., Ntore, S., Nshutiyayesu, S., Luke, W. R. Q., Kayombo, C., Kalema, J., Kabuye, C. and Beentje, H. J. (2019). Nymphaea thermarum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T185459A103564869. Accessed on 10 June 2022.

Humphreys, Aelys M., Govaerts, Rafaël, Ficinski, Sarah Z., Lughadha, Eimear Nic and Vorontsova, Maria S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Abstract] [Supplementary Dataset 1]

Juffe, D. (2010). Nymphaea thermarum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. ( Downloaded on 31 January 2015.

Lei, Maolin and Hu, Yiheng. (2022). The complete chloroplast genome of Nymphaea thermarum (Nymphaeaceae) from Rwanda, Africa. Mitochondrial DNA Part B 7(1): 289-291.

Magdalena, C. (2009). Nymphaea thermarum - The world's tiniest waterlily doesn't grow in water! Water Gardeners International 4: 4.

Povilus, Rebecca A., Losada, Juan M. and Friedman, William E. (2015). Floral biology and ovule and seed ontogeny of Nymphaea thermarum, a water lily at the brink of extinction with potential as a model system for basal angiosperms. Annals of Botany 115(2): 211-226.


<< Back to the Nymphaeales database