Hibiscadelphus giffardianus Rock

hau kuahiwi



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct (Humphreys et al., 2019)

Last record: 1930

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, USA


Biology & Ecology










Champion, Solomon J. (2020). Biogeography and phylogenetics of the Hawaiian endemic Hibiscadelphus, hau kuahiwi (Malvaceae). MSc thesis, University of Hawai'i.

Gill, Nathan S.; Yelenik, Stephanie; Banko, Paul; Dixon, Christopher B.; Jaenecke, Kelly; Peck, Robert. (2018). Invasive rat control is an efficient, yet insufficient, method for recovery of the critically endangered Hawaiian plant hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus). PLoS ONE 13(11): e0208106.

Humphreys, Aelys M., Govaerts, Rafaël, Ficinski, Sarah Z., Lughadha, Eimear Nic and Vorontsova, Maria S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Abstract] [Supplementary Dataset 1]

Lucas, Gren L. l. and Synge, Hugh. (compilers). (1978). The IUCN Plant Red Data Book. Morges, Switzerland: IUCN.

Oldfield, Sara, Lusty, Charlotte and MacKinven, Amy (compilers). (1998). The World List of Threatened Trees. Cambridge, U.K.: World Conservation Press. 650 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of endangered status for thirteen plants from the islands of Hawaii, State of Hawaii. U.S. Federal Register 61(198): 53137-53153.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer, S. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

Walter, Kerry S. and Gillett, Harriet J. (eds.). (1998). 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK: IUCN – The World Conservation Union. lxiv + 862 pp.

Wood, Kenneth R., Oppenheimer, Hank and Keir, Matthew. (2019). A checklist of endemic Hawaiian vascular plant taxa that are considered possibly extinct in the wild. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Technical Report #314.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1998. Hibiscadelphus giffardianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T30396A9536230. Downloaded on 30 April 2017.


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