Firmiana major (W. Smith) Hand.-Mazz.



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Rediscovered in c.2000

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild



Sichuan Province (southern) & Yunnan Province (northern), China


Biology & Ecology










Humphreys, Aelys M., Govaerts, Rafaël, Ficinski, Sarah Z., Lughadha, Eimear Nic and Vorontsova, Maria S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Abstract] [Supplementary Dataset 1]

Li, Congjia et al. (2020). Population structure and regeneration dynamics of Firmiana major, a dominant but endangered tree species. Forest Ecology and Management 462: 117993. [Abstract]

Li-kuo, F. and Jian-ming, J. (1992). China Plant Red Data Book – Rare and Endangered Plants 1. Science Press, Beijing.

Ma, Yuqian et al. (2022). Conservation genetics of Firmiana major, a threatened tree species with potential for afforestation of hot, arid climates. Global Ecology and Conservation 36: e02136.

National Environment Protection Bureau. 1987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Academy Press, Beijing.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). (1998). The World List of Threatened Trees. Cambridge, U.K.: World Conservation Press. 650 pp.

Sun, W. (1998). Firmiana major. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T32349A9700122. Downloaded on 23 November 2017.

Wang, D-S. (2001). Discovering wild population of Firmiana major in Panzhihua. Sichuan Plants 2001: 4-5.

WCSP (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet;

Ya, Ji-Dong et al. (2017). Complete chloroplast genome of Firmiana major (Malvaceae), a critically endangered species endemic to southwest China. Conservation Genetics Resources. [Abstract] [two corrections to the original article:]


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