Neonympha mitchellii francisci Parshall and Kral, 1989

St. Francis’ satyr, Saint Francis' satyr



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Rediscovered in 1992



North Carolina, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Parshall, D. K. and Kral, T. W. (1989). A new subspecies of Neonympha mitchellii (French) (Satyridae) from North Carolina. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 43(2):114-119.


Other references:

Aschehoug ET, Sivakoff FS, Cayton HL, Morris WF, Haddad NM. (2015). Habitat restoration affects immature stages of a wetland butterfly through indirect effects on predation. Ecology 96(7): 1761-1767.

Cayton H, Haddad NM, Ball B, Henry E, Aschehoug E. Habitat restoration as a recovery tool for a disturbance-dependent butterfly, the endangered St. Francis’ satyr. Butterfly Conservation in North America: Springer; 2015. p. 147–59.

Haddad, Nick, M. (2018). Resurrection and resilience of the rarest butterflies. PLoS Biol 16(2): e2003488.

Kuefler D, Haddad NM, Hall S, Hudgens B, Bartel B, Hoffman E. Distribution, population structure, and habitat use of the endangered St. Francis’ satyr butterfly, Neonympha mitchellii francisci. American Midland Naturalist. 2008;159:298–320.

Milko LV, Haddad NM, Lance SL. Dispersal via stream corridors structures populations of the endangered St. Francis’ satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci). Journal of Insect Conservation. 2012;16(2):263–73.

Refsnider R. Emergency rule to list Mitchell’s satyr as endangered. In: USFWS, editor. Federal Register 1991. p. 28825–8.


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