Placostylus bivaricosus etheridgei Hedley, 1891

Lord Howe flax snail, Lord Howe placostylus



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Bulimus bivaricosus etheridgei Hedley, 1891; Placostylus etheridgei 'Brazier', 1889 (nomen nudum); Placostylus bivaricosus royi Iredale, 1944


Placostylus bivaricosus is treated as monotypic by (MolluscaBase, 2021).


Conservation Status

Last record: "several decades [ago]" (Ponder et al. 2003:175)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Lord Howe Island, Australia


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Hedley, Charles. (1891). The land and freshwater shells of Lord Howe Island. Records of the Australian Museum 1(7): 134-144, pls. xxi-xxii..


Other references:

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW). (2007). Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices. Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney. vii + 267 pp.

Hyman, Isabel T. and Köhler, F. (2020). A Field Guide to the Land Snails of Lord Howe Island. Australian Museum.

Iredale, Tom. (1944). The land Mollusca of Lord Howe Island. Australian Zoologist 10: 299-334.

MolluscaBase eds. (2021). MolluscaBase. Placostylus bivaricosus (Gaskoin, 1855). Accessed at: on 2022-03-30

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. (2001). Lord Howe Placostylus Placostylus bivaricosus recovery plan. NPWS, Hurstville, NSW.

Ponder, Winston F. (1996). Placostylus bivaricosus ssp. etheridgei. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 27 July 2013.

Ponder, W.F. 1996. Placostylus bivaricosus ssp. etheridgei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T17448A7078251. Accessed on 04 July 2022.

Ponder, Winston, Colgan, Donald J., Gleeson, Dianne M. and Sherley, Greg H. (2003). Relationships of Placostylus from Lord Howe island: an investigation using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. Molluscan Research 23: 159-178.


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