Delos gardineri (Smith, 1897)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Rhytida gardineri Smith, 1897 (original combination)


Conservation Status

Missing (Cowie et al., 2017)

Last record: 1897 or before

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)


Only known from two specimens (Smith, 1897). It was not found alive in the 1938 survey (St John, 1938:57; Barker & Bouchet, 2010), in mid-1986* (Parkinson, 1988), or in May 2012 (Brodie et al. 2012; Brodie et al. In Press). Considered extinct by (Régnier et al., 2009).


* According to (Brodie et al. 2012) this "relatively brief" survey was confined to the off-shore islet of Uea.



Rotuma Island, Rotuma Group, Fiji


Biology & Ecology




Only known from two dead shells, both syntypes:

NNHMUK 1897.11.8.64

NNHMUK 1897.11.8.65


Further material was possibly found by (Brodie et al. 2012:8,13), who recorded a tentatively identified juvenile. This was changed to two definite specimens in (Brodie et al. In Press:20,45).






Original scientific description:

Smith, E. A. (1897). On a collection of land and freshwater shells from Rotuma Island. Annals of Natural History (series 6) 20: 519-523.


Other references:

Barker, G. (2012). Delos gardineri. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. ( Downloaded on 21 April 2014.

Barker, G. 2020. Delos gardineri (amended version of 2012 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T195520A176232042. Accessed on 08 July 2022.

Barker, G. M. and Bouchet, P. (2010). A catalogue and identification guide to the land snail fauna of Fiji, and associated database. Unpublished draft.

Barker, G.M. and Efford, M. 2004. Predatory gastropods as natural enemies of terrestrial gastropods and other invertebrates. In: Barker, G.M. (ed.), Natural Enemies of Terrestrial Molluscs, pp. 279-403. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

Brodie, G., Barker, G. M., Stevens, F. and Fiu, M. (In Press, 2014). Preliminary re-survey of the land snail fauna of Rotuma: conservation and biosecurity implications. Pacific Conservation Biology. [automatic download]

Brodie, G., Stevens, F. and Barker, G. (2012). Report on a preliminary survey of the land snail fauna of Rotuma. University of the South Pacific. 21 pp.

Cowie, Robert H. (2001). Can snails ever be effective and safe biocontrol agents? International Journal of Pest Management 47: 23-40.

Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Fatiaki, A. (1999). An introduction and geography. Rotuma Hanua pumue precious land, pp. 1-6. Institute of Pacific Studies, University of South Pacific, Suva.

Howard, A. and Rensel, J. (1991). Animals as metaphors in Rotuman sayings. In: Pawley, A. (ed.), Man and a Half: Essays in Pacific Anthropology and Ethnobiology in Honour of Ralph Bulmer, The Polynesian Society, Auckland.

Meyer, W. M., Hayes, K. A. and Meyer, A. L. (2008). Giant African snail, Achatina fulica, as a snail predator. American Malacological Bulletin 24: 117-119.

MolluscaBase eds. (2021). MolluscaBase. Delos gardineri (E. A. Smith, 1897). Accessed at: on 2022-04-02

Parkinson, B. (1988). Collecting in Fiji. The Papustyla 8: 13.

Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît and Bouchet, Philippe. (2009). Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214-1221.

Rensel, J. (1993). The Fiji connection: migrant involvement in the Economy of Rotuma. Pacific Viewpoint 34(2): 215-240.

Rigamoto, R. R. and Tyagi, A. P. (2005). Biodiversity of the coastal littoral vegetation of Rotuma Island, Fiji. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 7: 79-81.

St John, H. (1938). Expedition to Rotuma. Pacific Island Monthly 8(11): 57.

Ward, D. F. and Wetterer, J. K. (2006). Checklist of the ants of Fiji (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Evenhuis, N.L. and Bickel, D.J. (eds), Fiji Arthropods, pp. 23-47. Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Zug, G. R., Springer, V. G., Williams, J. T. and Johnson, G. D. (1988). The vertebrates of Rotuma and surrounding waters. Atoll Research Bulletin 36.


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