Achatinella mustelina Mighels, 1845

O'ahu tree snail



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Mighels, J. W. (1845). Descriptions of shells from the Sandwich Islands, and other localities. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2: 18-25.


Other references:

Hadfield, M. G. and Mountain, B.S. (1980). A field study of a vanishing species, Achatinella mustelina (Gastropoda, Pulmonata), in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Pacific Science 34: 345-358.

Hadfield, M. & Hadway, L. 1996. Achatinella mustelina. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 20 September 2011.

Holland, Brenden S. and Hadfield, Michael G. (2002). Islands within an island: phylogeography and conservation genetics of the endangered Hawaiian tree snail Achatinella mustelina. Molecular Ecology 11: 365-375. [Abstract]

Holland, Brenden S. and Hadfield, Michael G. (2007). Molecular Systematics of the Endangered O‘ahu Tree Snail Achatinella mustelina: Synonymization of Subspecies and Estimation of Gene Flow between Chiral Morphs. Pacific Science 61(1): 53–66.

Kobayashi, Sharon R. and Hadfield, Michael G. (1996). An Experimental Study of Growth and Reproduction in the Hawaiian Tree Snails Achatinella mustelina and Partulina redfieldii (Achatinellinae). Pacific Science 50(4): 339-354.

Price, M. R., Hadfield, M. G., Knapp, I. S. S., Toonen, R. J. and Forsman, Z. H. (2021). Evolutionary genomics of endangered Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) for conservation of adaptive capacity. PeerJ 9:e10993. [Supplemental Information 1 (Maximum likelihood (ML) trees); Supplemental Information 2 (Tree snail sample attributes by taxonomy)]

Welch, D. A. (1938). Distribution and variation of Achatinella mustelina Mighels in the Waianae Mountains, Oahu. Bull. B. P. Bishop Mus. 152: 1-164.


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