Achatinella livida Swainson, 1828

Oahu treesnail, pupu kuahiwi



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonyms: Achatinella viridans Mighels; Achatinella emersoni Newcomb; Achatinella reevei Adams; Achatinella recta Newcomb; Achatinella glauca Gulick; Achatinella herbacea Gulick; Eburnella livida Swainson


Conservation Status


IUCN RedList status: Extinct


Almost certainly wrongly listed as extinct by the IUCN.



Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, USA


Biology & Ecology










Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Caum, E.L. 1974. Check list of Hawaiian land and fresh water mollusca. Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 56: 1-80.

Cowie, R.H., N.L. Evenhuis, C.C. Christensen. 1995. Catalog of the Native Land and Freshwater Molluscs of the Hawaiian Islands. Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands. 248 pp.

Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Holland, B.S. and M.G. Hadfield. 2004. Origin and diversification of the endemic Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) based on molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 588-600.

IUCN. (1990). IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Mollusc Specialist Group. (1996a). Achatinella livida. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 19 September 2011.

Mollusc Specialist Group. (1996b). Achatinella livida. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T189A13047953. Accessed on 14 June 2022.

NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: April 15, 2017).

Price, M. R., Hadfield, M. G., Knapp, I. S. S., Toonen, R. J. and Forsman, Z. H. (2021). Evolutionary genomics of endangered Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) for conservation of adaptive capacity. PeerJ 9:e10993. [Supplemental Information 1 (Maximum likelihood (ML) trees); Supplemental Information 2 (Tree snail sample attributes by taxonomy)]

Price, M. R., Sischo, D., Pascua, M. and Hadfield, M. G. (2015). Demographic and genetic factors in the recovery or demise of ex situ populations following a severe bottleneck in fifteen species of Hawaiian tree snails. PeerJ 3: e1406.

Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît and Bouchet, Philippe. (2009). Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214-1221.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). (1993). Recovery plan. Oahu tree snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. 58 pp. + 64 app.

Wells, S.M., Pyle, R.M. and Collins, N.M. (compilers). (1983). The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.


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