Zapornia monasa Kittlitz, 1858:30 (32?)

Kittlitz's rail, Kosrae Island crake, Kusaie Island crake, Kusaie crake, Ponape crake, Kusaie Island crake



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Aphanolimnas monasa Kittlitz, 1858:30; Rallus monasa Kittlitz, 1858:30; Porzana monasa Kittlitz, 1858:30; Ortygometra tabuensis Finsch, 1880; Kittlitzia monasa Kittlitz, 1858:30


Conservation Status


Last record: December 1827 (Day, 1981:87); 1827-1828 (BirdLife International, 2016)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Kosrae (=Kusaie) (& Ponape?), Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia


Biology & Ecology




Only known from two specimens in the Leningrad Museum (Day, 1981:87; BirdLife International, 2012).


Travers & Travers (1872:218) report the collection of a young specimen from the Chatham Islands sometime prior to 1872, however this is almost certainly mistaken.






Original scientific description:

Kittlitz, F. H. v. (1858). Denkw. Reise russ. Amerikanach. Gotha: J. Perthes.


Other references:

Baker, R. H. (1951). The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and distribution. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History 3(1): 1-359.

BirdLife International. (2012). Zapornia monasa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. ( Downloaded on 26 July 2014.

BirdLife International. 2016. Zapornia monasa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22692708A93366211. Accessed on 18 June 2022.

Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Finsch, O. (1880). Beobachtungen über die Vögel der Insel Kuschai (Carolinen). Journal für Ornithologie 28: 296-310.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Greenway, J. C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. New York: Dover Publications.

Hartlaub, G. (1893). Vier eltene Rallen. Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Naturwissen-schaftlichen Verein zu Bremen 12(3): 389-402.

Hayes, Floyd E., Pratt, H. Douglas and Cianchini, Carlos J. (2016). The Avifauna of Kosrae, Micronesia: History, Status, and Taxonomy. Pacific Science January 70(1): 91-127.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Mlíkovský, Jiří and Loskot, V. M. (2016). Type specimens and type localities of birds (Aves) collected during Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz’s circumnavigation in 1826-1829. Part 1. Specimens in the collections of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St.-Petersburg, Russia. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 185: 77-137.

Nejfel‘dt, I. A. (1978). Vymeršie pticy v kollekcii Zoologičeskogo instituta Akademii nauk SSSR [Extinct birds in the collection of the Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR]. – In: Loskot V.M. (ed.): Sistematika i biologiâ redkih i maloizučenyh ptic [Systematics and biology of rare and less known birds]. – Akademiâ Nauk, Trudy Zoologičeskogo Instituta 76: 101-110. [In Russian.]

Ripley, S. D. (1977). Rails of the World: A Monograph of the Family Rallidae. Boston: Codine.

Sharpe, R. B. (1892). New name for Kittlitzia Hartlaub 1891. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 1: 20.

Slikas, Beth, Olson, Storrs L. and Fleischer, Robert C. (2002). Rapid, independent evolution of flightlessness in four species of Pacific Island rails (Rallidae): an analysis based on mitochondrial sequence data. Journal of Avian Biology 33: 5-14.

Steadman, David W. (1987). Two new species of rails (Aves: Rallidae) from Mangaia, Southern Cook Islands. Pacific Science 40(1-4): 27-43.

Taylor, B. (1998). Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Robertsbridge, UK: Pica Press.

Travers, H. H. and Travers, W. T. L. (1872). On the birds of the Chatham Islands, with introductory remarks on the avifauna and flora of the islands in their relation to those of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 5: 212-222.


<< Back to the Gruiformes (Crakes, Cranes, Fluftails, Gallinues, Limpkins, Rails, Trumpeters, Wood-rails, etc.) database