Pareudiastes pacificus Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871:25

Samoan wood rail, Samoan woodrail, Samoan moorhen, Samoan gallinule, Punaé



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Gallinula pacificus Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871:25; Gallinula pacifica Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871:25; Pareudiastes pacifica Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871:25 (used by Tyrberg, 2009:82)


Conservation Status


Last record: 1873 (Day, 1981:87; Hume & Walters, 2012:118; Martin et al., 2023); 1984? (Taylor & van Perlo, 1998)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered


Endemic to the island of Savai'i, Samoan Islands, it was last seen in 1873. However, recent reports (one in August 1984, two in 1987 and one in 2003) indicate that the species may still persist (Bellingham & Davis, 1984:123; BirdLife International, 2012).



Savai[']i (& Opolu?), Samoa[n islands]


Biology & Ecology




[url=]RMNH 110.046[/url]

[url=]RMNH 110.060[/url]






Original scientific description:

Hartlaub, G. and Finsch, O. (1871). The Samoan Wood Rail. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 25.


Other references:

Beichle, U. and Bauchmann, S. (2003). Die Landvoegel der Samoa-Inseln. TenDenZen 1-2: 1-156.

Bellingham, Mark and Davis, Alison. (1988). Forest bird communities in Western Samoa. Notornis 35(2): 117-128.

BirdLife International. (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge.

BirdLife International. (2012). Gallinula pacifica. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 16 March 2013.

Bolau, H. (1898). Die Typen der Vogelsammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums zu Hamburg. Mitt. Naturh. Mus. Hamburg 15: 45-71.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Lowe, Stephen, Martin, Rob W., Symes, Andy, Westrip, James R. S. and Wheatley, Hannah. (2018a). Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Stattersfield, A. J. and Brooks, T. M. (2006). Going or gone: defining ‘Possibly Extinct’ species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126A: 7-24.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Wheatley, Hannah, Lowe, Stephen, Westrip, James R. S., Symes, Andy and Martin, Rob W. (2018b). Data for: Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Mendeley Data, V1, doi: 10.17632/vvjhpmyxb4.1

Butler, David. (2012). Report on the birds of upland Savai, pp. 87-111. In: Atheron, James and Jeffries, Bruce (eds.). Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of Upland Savai'i, Samoa. Apia, Samoa: SPREP. 175 pp.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Greenway, J. C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. New York: Dover Publications.

Hay, J. R. (1986). Bird conservation in the Pacific Islands. Study Report No. 7, International Council for Bird Preservation.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292.

Martin, Thomas E., Bennett, Gareth C., Fairbairn, Andrew J. and Mooers, A. Ø. (2023). ‘Lost’ taxa and their conservation implications. Animal Conservation 26(1): 14-24. [Appendix S2 (1617 taxa not seen >10 years); Appendix S3 (562 taxa not seen >50 years)]

Mayr, Ernst. (1933). Birds collected during the Whitney South Sea Expedition. XXII. Three new genera from Polynesia and Melanesia. Am. Mus. Novit. No. 590. 

Mees, G. F. (1977). Pareudiastes pacifica. Zool. Med. 50: 230-242.

Olson, Storrs L. (1973). A classification of the Rallidae. Wilson Bulletin 85(4): 381-416.

Olson, Storrs L. (1975). The South Pacific gallinules of the genus Pareudiastes. Wilson Bulletin 87(1): 1-5.

Pratt, H. Douglas and Mittermeier, John C. (2016). Notes on the natural history, taxonomy, and conservation of the endemic avifauna of the Samoan Archipelago. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 128(2): 217-241. [Abstract]

Pritchard, W. T. (1866). Polynesian reminiscences; or life in the South Pacific Islands. London: Chapman & Hall.

Taylor, B. and van Perlo, B. (1998). Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Robertsbridge, UK: Pica Press.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Whitmee, S. J. (1874). Letter to P. L. Sclater on birds of Samoa. Proc Zool. Soc. London 1874: 183-186.


<< Back to the Gruiformes (Crakes, Cranes, Fluftails, Gallinues, Limpkins, Rails, Trumpeters, Wood-rails, etc.) database