Xiphophorus meyeri Schartl & Schröder, 1988

Marbled swordtail



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild

Last wild record: 1997

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild


"The Marbled Swordtail is historically endemic and restricted to the springs of La Cascada and El Socavon, as well as the small creeks which connect these freshwater springs located in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahihula, Mexico. Due to complete loss of habitat through water abstraction for mining activities, the species is considered extinct in the wild. The last sighting of this species was in 1997 and it has since been extensively sampled. Its habitat has now been recovered and a major priority for conservation of this species is reintroduction of ex-situ individuals back into its natural habitat. Development of an ex-situ breeding program and expansion of ex-situ holding sites is necessary to secure the future of the species. This species is listed as Extinct in the Wild."

(Almada-Villela et al., 2019)



Coahuila, Mexico


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Schartl, M. and Schröder, J. H. (1988). A new species of the genus Xiphophorus Heckel 1848, endemic to northern Coahuila, Mexico (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 68(4-6): 311-321.

Other references:

Almada-Villela, P., Contreras-Balderas, S. and Hendrickson, D. (2019). Xiphophorus meyeri . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T23158A2784905. Downloaded on 12 January 2020.

Ceballos, G., Díaz Pardo, E., Martínez Estévez, L. and Espinosa Pérez, H. (2016). Los peces dulceacuícolas de México en peligro de extinción. FCE, UNAM, CONABIO, CONANP, Mexico City.

Dalrymple, S. E., Abeli, T., Ewen, J. G., Gilbert, T. C., Hogg, C. J., Lloyd, N. A., Moehrenschlager, A., Rodríguez, J. P. and Smith, D. (2023). Addressing Threats and Ecosystem Intactness to Enable Action for Extinct in the Wild Species. Diversity 15: 268.

Miller, R. R., Minckley, W. L. and Morris, S. M. (2005). Freshwater Fishes of Mexico. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

SEMARNAT. (2010). Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, Protección ambiental-Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres-Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio-Lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación.

Smith, Donal et al. (2023). Extinct in the wild: The precarious state of Earth’s most threatened group of species. Science 379(6634): eadd2889.


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