Syngnathus watermeyeri Smith, 1963

Estuarine pipefish, River pipefish



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Rediscovered in 2006



South Africa


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Smith, J. L. B. (1963). Fishes of the family Syngnathidae from the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean. Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University. 27: 515-543.

Other references:

Claassens, L., Villiers, N. M., Seath, J., & Wasserman, J. (2021). Distribution and density of the critically endangered estuarine pipefish across its range – implications for conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 32(1): 28-41.

Mowbray, Sean. (May 3, 2022). Saving the near-extinct estuarine pipefish means protecting estuary health. Blog post on Available at: [accessed 7 May 2022]

Nester, Georgia M., Heydenrych, M., Berry, T. E., Wasserman, J., Richards, Z., White, N., … Claassens, L. (2021). Environmental DNA detects critically endangered South African estuarine pipefish Syngnathus watermeyeri. Zenodo.

Nester, Georgia M. et al. (2022). Characterizing the distribution of the critically endangered estuarine pipefish (Syngnathus watermeyeri) across its range using environmental DNA. Environmental DNA.

Ntshudisane, Ofentse K. et al. (2021). Dietary specialisation in a Critically Endangered pipefish revealed by faecal eDNA metabarcoding. bioRxiv preprint.

Vorwerk, P. D., Froneman, P. W., & Paterson, A. W. (2007). Recovery of the critically endangered river pipefish, Syngnathus watermeyeri, in the Kariega Estuary, Eastern Cape province. South African Journal of Science 103: 199-201.

Weiss, S., Emami-Khoyi, A., Kaiser, H., Cowley, P. D., James, N. C., Jansen van Vuuren, B., … Teske, P. R. (2022). The last two remaining populations of the critically endangered estuarine pipefish are inbred and not genetically distinct. Frontiers in Marine Science 8.

Whitfield, A. K. (1995). Threatened fishes of the world: Syngnathus watermeyeri Smith, 1963 (Syngnathidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 43: 152.


<< Back to the Neopterygii (New-Finned Fishes) database