Sander vitreus glaucus Hubbs, 1926

Blue walleye, Blue pike



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Stizostedion vitreum glaucum Hubbs, 1926; Sander vitreus glaucum Hubbs, 1926


Conservation Status

Extinct (Burkhead, 2012)

Last record: 1965 (Miller et al. 1989:33)


Estimated date of extinction: 1970 (Burkhead, 2012)



Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the Niagara River, North America


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Hubbs, C. L. (1926). A Checklist of the Fishes of the Great Lakes and Tributary Waters, with Nomenclatorial Notes and Analytical Keys. Miscellaneous Publications 15. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan.


Other references:

Burkhead, Noel M. (2012). Extinction Rates in North American Freshwater Fishes, 1900–2010. BioScience 62(9): 798-808.

Campbell, R. R. (1987). Status of the Blue Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum glaucum, in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 101(2): 245-252.

Deason, H. J. (1936). Morphometric and life history studies of the pike-perches (Stizostedion) of Lake Erie. Doctoral dissertation.  Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor. 368 pp.

Haponski, A. E. and Stepien, Carol A. (2014). A population genetic window into the past and future of the walleye Sandervitreus: relation to historic walleye and the extinct "blue pike" S. v. "glaucus". BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 133.

Jelks, Howard L., Walsh, Stephen J., Burkhead, Noel M., Contreras-Balderas, Salvador, Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo, Hendrickson, Dean A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, Nicholas E., McCormick, Frank, Nelson, Joseph F., Platania, Steven P., Porter, Brady A., Renaud, Claude B., Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacabo, Taylor, Eric B. and Warren, Melvin L. Jr. (2008). Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.

McAllister, D. E., Parker, B. J. and McKee, P. M. (1985). Rare, endangered and extinct fishes in Canada. Syllogeus 54. National Museum of Natural Sciences. Ottawa, ON. 192 pp.

Miller, R. R., Williams, J. D. and Williams, J. E. (1989). Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14(6): 22-38.

Ono, R. Dana, Williams, James D. and Wagner, Anne [with painting by Aleta Pahel]. (1983). Vanishing Fishes of North America. Washington DC: Stone Wall Press, Inc. 257 pp.

Regier, N. A., Applegate, V. C. and Ryder, R. A. (1969). The ecology and management of the walleye in western Lake Erie. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report 15, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Scott, W. B. and Crossman, E. J. (1973). Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 184. pp. 767-774.

Stepien, Carol A. and Faber, J. E. (1998). Population genetic structure, phylogeography and spawning philopatry in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Mol. Ecol. 7: 1757-1769.

Stone, F. L. (1948). A study of the taxonomy of the blue and yellow pikeperches (Stizostedion) of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, N.Y.

Strange, Rex Meade and Stepien, Carol A. (2007). Genetic divergence and connectivity among river and reef spawning groups of walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus) in Lake Erie. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 64: 437-448. [automatic download]

Trautman, M. B. (1981). The Fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH.

USFWS. 1983. Deregulation of the Longjaw Cisco and the Blue Pike. United States Fish and Wildife Service, September 2, 1983, 48 FR 39941.


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