Oncorhynchus kawamurae Jordan & McGregor, 1925

Kunimasu, Black kokanee



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Oncorhynchus nerka kawamurae Jordan & McGregor, 1925


Conservation Status

Last record: 1940

Rediscovered outside natural range in 2010

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild



Lake Tazawa (native), Akita Prefecture & Lake Saiko (introduced), Yamanashi Prefecture, both Honshu, Japan


Biology & Ecology











Original scientific description:

Jordan, David S. and McGregor, R. C. in: Jordan, D. S. and Hubbs, C. L. (1925). Record of fishes obtained by David Starr Jordan in Japan, 1922. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 10(2): 93-346.

Other references:

Dalrymple, S. E., Abeli, T., Ewen, J. G., Gilbert, T. C., Hogg, C. J., Lloyd, N. A., Moehrenschlager, A., Rodríguez, J. P. and Smith, D. (2023). Addressing Threats and Ecosystem Intactness to Enable Action for Extinct in the Wild Species. Diversity 15: 268.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Miyazaki, Y., Mukai, T., Nakajima, J., Takaku, K. & Taniguchi, Y. 2019. Oncorhynchus kawamurae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T110463465A110463483. Accessed on 04 July 2022.

Moreira, A.L. and Taylor, E.B. (2015). The origin and genetic divergence of "black" kokanee, a novel reproductive ecotype of Oncorhynchus nerka. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71: 1584-1595.

Morris, A. R. and Caverly, A. (2004). 2004 Seton and Anderson Lakes kokanee assessment. British Columbia Conservation Foundation and Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Kamloops, British Columbia.

Muto, N., Nakayama, K. and Nakabo, T. (2013). Distinct genetic isolation between “Kunimasu” (Oncorhynchus kawamurae) and “Himemasu” (O. nerka) in Lake Saiko, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, inferred from microsatellite analysis. Ichthyological Research 60: 188-194.

Nakabo, T., Nakayama, K., Muto, N. and Miyazawa, M. (2011). Oncorhynchus kawamurae ‘‘Kunimasu,’’ a deepwater trout, discovered in Lake Saiko, 70 years after extinction in the original habitat, Lake Tazawa, Japan. Ichthyological Research 58: 180-183.

Nakabo, T., Tohkairin, A., Muto, N., Watanabe, Y., Miura, Y., Miura, H., Aoyagi, T., Kaji, N., Nayakaya, K. and Kai, Y. (2014). Growth-related morphology of “Kunimasu” (Oncorhynchus kawamurae: family Salmonidae) from Lake Saiko, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Ichthyological Research 61: 115-130.

Nakayama, K., Muto, N. and Nakabo, T. (2013). Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence between “Kunimasu” Oncorhynchus kawamurae and “Himemasu” O. nerka in Lake Saiko, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, and their identification using multiplex haplotype-specific PCR. Ichthyological Research 60: 277-281.

Nakayama, Kouji, Tohkairin, Akira, Yoshikawa, Akane and Nakabo, Tetsuji. (2018). Detection and morphological characteristics of “Kunimasu” (Oncorhynchus kawamurae)/”Himemasu” (O. nerka) hybrids in Lake Motosu, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Ichthyological Research. [Abstract]

Senboku City Municipal Office. (2017). Lake Tazawa Kunimasu Miraikan Senboku City. Senboku City Municipal Office, Senboku City.

Smith, Donal et al. (2023). Extinct in the wild: The precarious state of Earth’s most threatened group of species. Science 379(6634): eadd2889.

Sugiyama, H. and Goto, A. (2012). Impressions of the sumposium "Kunimasu: its biological entity and conservation" held at the lecture open to the public of the Ichthyological Society of Japan in 2012. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 59: 182-184.

Tokui, T. (1964). Studies on the kokanee salmon (V). Transplantation of the kokanee salmon in Japan. Sci Rep Hokkaido Salmon Hatchery 18: 73-90. [relevant citation?]

Yaguchi, Takao. "Tsurikichi-Sanpei Heisei-Ban (1) Chitei-ko no Kinoshirimasu." Comic strip. In Shonen Magazine. 1-228.


<< Back to the Neopterygii (New-Finned Fish) database