Moxostoma lacerum Jordan & Brayton, 1877:280

Harelip sucker



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Lagochila lacera Jordan & Brayton, 1877:280


Conservation Status

Extinct (Burkhead, 2012)

Last record: 1893 (Miller et al. 1989:30)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct


Estimated date of extinction: 1910 (Burkhead, 2012)



USA (including Illinois)


Biology & Ecology




Only 33 preserved specimens exist in collections around the world (Jenkins, 1994), as well as subfossil remains (Manzano et al. 1991).


1 specimen is in the Illinois Natural History Survey (Sabaj et al. 1997):

INHS 27884


1 specimen is in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (Fink & Humphries, 2010a,b):

UMMZ 177435




USNM 36189.5138446 (4 fish)

USNM 31129.5005013 (1 fish)

USNM 25258.5003486 (1 fish)


See here:


A preserved specimen can be seen here:






Original scientific description:

Jordan, David S. and Brayton, A. W. (1877). On Lagochila, a new genus of catostomid fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 29: 280-283.


Other references:

Boschung, H.T. and Mayden, R.L. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Burkhead, Noel M. (2012). Extinction Rates in North American Freshwater Fishes, 1900–2010. BioScience 62(9): 798-808.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Dickinson, W. C. (1991). Archaeological Occurrences of the Extinct Harelip Sucker, Lagochila lacera Jordan and Brayton. Beamers, Bobwhites, and Blue-points: Tributes to the Career of Paul W. Parmalee 23: 81.

Evermann, B. W. and Jenkins, O. P. (1889). Notes on Indiana fishes. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 11: 43-57.

Fink, William L. and Humphries, Julian H. (2010a). Morphological Description of the Extinct North American Sucker Moxostoma lacerum (Ostariophysi, Catostomidae), Based on High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography. Copeia 2010(1): 5-13. [Abstract]

Dr. William Fink, J.H. Humphries. (2010b). "Moxostoma lacerum" (On-line), Digital Morphology. Accessed May 9, 2012 at

Harris, P.M. and Mayden, R.L. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) as inferred from mitchondrial SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 225-237.

Jacquemin, S. J., Ebersole, J. A., Dickinson, W. C. and Ciampaglio, C. N. (2016). Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA. PeerJ 4: e1648.

Jelks, Howard L., Walsh, Stephen J., Burkhead, Noel M., Contreras-Balderas, Salvador, Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo, Hendrickson, Dean A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, Nicholas E., McCormick, Frank, Nelson, Joseph F., Platania, Steven P., Porter, Brady A., Renaud, Claude B., Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacabo, Taylor, Eric B. and Warren, Melvin L. Jr. (2008). Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.

Jenkins, R. E. 1970. Systematic Studies of the Catostomid Fish Tribe Moxostomatini. Unpublished Dissertation, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Jenkins, R. E. 1980. Lagochila lacera (Harelip Sucker). In Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes, edited by D. S. Lee, C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocult, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister and J. R. Stauffer, Jr., p. 407, North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Jenkins, R. E. (1994). Harelip sucker Moxostoma lacerum (Jordan and Brayton). In: Jenkins, R. E. and Burkhead, N. M. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society, xxiii + 1079 pp.

Jenkins, R. E. and Burkhead, N. M. (1994). Freshwater fishes of Virginia. Bethesda: American Fisheries Society.

Jordan, D. S. (1882). Report on the fishes of Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio 4: 735-1002.

Jordan, D. S. (1890). Report of explorations made during the summer and autumn of 1888, in the Allegheny Region of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and in western Indiana, with an account of the fishes found in each of the river basins of those regions. Bull. U. S. Fish. Comm. 8: 97-173.

Jordan, D. S. and B. W. Evermann. 1896. The Fishes of North and Middle America: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Species of Fish-like Vertebrates Found in the Waters of North America, North of the Isthmus of Panama. Bulletin of the United States Natural Museum 47:1-1240.

Kirsch, P. H. (1896). A report upon investigations in the Maumee River basin during the summer of 1893. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 14: 315-334.

Lee, D.S., Gilbert, C.R., Hocutt, C.H., Jenkins, R.E., McAllister, D.E. and Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Manzano, B. L. and Dickinson, W. C. (1991). Archaeological Occurrences of the Extinct Harelip Sucker, Lagochila lacera Jordan and Brayton (Pisces: Catostomidae). In: Purdue, J. R., Klippel, W. E. and Styles, B. W. (eds.). Beamers, Bobwhites, and Blue-Points: Tributes to the Career of Paul W. Parmalee. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 23: 81-89.

Manzano, Bruce L., Means, Bernard K., Begley, Christopher T. and Zechini, Mariana. (2015). Using Digital 3D Scanning to Create “Artifictions” of the Passenger Pigeon and Harelip Sucker, Two Extinct Species in Eastern North America: The Future Examines the Past. Ethnobiology Letters 6(2): 232-241.

Miller, R. J. and Evans, H. E. (1965). External morphology of the brain and lips in catostomid fishes. Copeia 1965: 467-487.

Miller, R. R., Williams, J. D. and Williams, J. E. (1989). Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14(6): 22-38.

NatureServe. 2013. Moxostoma lacerum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T39291A19033113. Accessed on 19 June 2022.

Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Perez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Ono, R. Dana, Williams, James D. and Wagner, Anne [with painting by Aleta Pahel]. (1983). Vanishing Fishes of North America. Washington DC: Stone Wall Press, Inc. 257 pp.

Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts.

Sabaj, M.H., K.S. Cummings, and L.M. Page. (1997). Annotated Catalog of Type Specimens in the Illinois Natural History Survey Fish Collection. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 35(5): 253-300.

Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Catostomidae, Freshwater Fishes of North America and Asia. In Systematics, Historical Ecology, and North American Freshwater Fishes, edited by R. L. Mayden, pp. 778-826. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Straight, C.A., B. Albanese, and B.J. Freeman. [Internet]. [updated 2009 March 25]. Fishes of Georgia Website, Georgia Museum of Natural History; [cited 9 May 2012]. Available from:

Williams, J. D. (1977). Endangered species: yesterday, today, and tomorrow? Pages 49-55 in J.E. Cooper, S.S. Robinson, and J.B. Funderberg, eds. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh.

Woolman, A. J. (1892). Report of an examination of the rivers of Kentucky with lists of the fishes obtained. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 10: 249-289.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (1996). Moxostoma lacerum. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. ( Downloaded on 09 May 2012.


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