Cyprinodon inmemoriam Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas, 1993

Charco Azul pupfish



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct (Burkhead, 2012)

Last record: 17 March 1984

IUCN RedList status: Extinct


Estimated date of extinction: 1986 (Burkhead, 2012)


"Contreras-Balderas and de (1996) state that Ojo La Trinidad, Mexico, (a spring where Cyprinodon inmemoriam is endemic) was reduced from an area of 10,000 m2 to an area of “murky brown and stinky” water less than 1000 m2 in area, with no fishes; they note that the spring dried completely thereafter, flowing only once during a rainy season. According to Contreras-Balderas and de (1996) the falling water levels are due to water extraction from local aquifers for use in agricultural irrigation. Therefore, P(local) was estimated to be high. The species is very likely endemic to the pools of Ojo La Trinidad. The possibility that this species might be present in neighbouring pools cannot be discounted, but high localised endemism is a common feature of many cyprinodontids"

(Keith et al., 2017:324)



Ojo la Trinidad, northern Mexico


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Lozano-Vilano, M. d. L. and Conteras-Balderas, Salvador. (1993). Four new species of Cyprinodon from southern Nuevo León, Mexico, with a key to the C. eximius complex (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters. 4(4): 295-308.

Other references:

Burkhead, Noel M. (2012). Extinction Rates in North American Freshwater Fishes, 1900–2010. BioScience 62(9): 798-808.

Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). Cyprinodon inmemoriam. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 31 May 2013.

Contreras-Balderas, S. and de L. Lozano-Vilano, M., (1996). Extinction of most Sandia and Potosí valleys (Nuevo Léon, Mexico) endemic pupfishes, crayfishes and snails. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshw. 7: 33-40.

Jelks, Howard L., Walsh, Stephen J., Burkhead, Noel M., Contreras-Balderas, Salvador, Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo, Hendrickson, Dean A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, Nicholas E., McCormick, Frank, Nelson, Joseph F., Platania, Steven P., Porter, Brady A., Renaud, Claude B., Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacabo, Taylor, Eric B. and Warren, Melvin L. Jr. (2008). Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.

Keith, D. A., Butchart, S. H. M., Regan, H. M., Harrison, I., Ackakaya, H. R., Solow, A. R. and Burgman, M. A. (2017). Inferring extinctions I: a structured method using information on threats. Biological Conservation 214: 320-327.

Lozano-Vilano, M. L. and Maza-Benignos, M. De La. (2016). Diversity and status of Mexican killifishes. Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13186 [Abstract]

Miller, Robert Rush, Minckley, W. L. and Norris, S. M. (2005). Freshwater Fishes of México. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Schmitter-Soto, J. (2019). Cyprinodon inmemoriam. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T6176A3107502. Downloaded on 26 June 2021.


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