Cyprinodon bovinus Baird & Girard, 1853

Leon Springs pupfish



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record: 1851 (Miller, 1961:381)

Rediscovered: 1965 (possible specimen); 17 November 1971 (Eschelle & Miller, 1974:183)

IUCN RedList status: Vulnerable



Pecos County, Texas, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Baird, S. F. and Girard, C. (1853). Descriptions of new species of fishes collected by Mr. John H. Clark, on the U. S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, under Lt. Col. Jas. D. Graham. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 387-390.

Other references:

Al-Shaer, Layla, Bloch, Andrew, Little, Kimberly and Itzkowitz, M. (2018). Monitoring social behaviour as an assessment of translocation success in a reintroduced population of the endangered Leon Springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus). Aquatic Conservation. [Abstract]

Black, Andrew N., Seears, Heidi A., Hollenback, Christopher M. and Samollow, Paul B. (Accepted, 2017). Rapid genetic and morphologic divergence between captive and wild populations of the endangered Leon Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon bovinus. Molecular Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/mec.14028 [Abstract]

Bloch, Andrew N. et al. (2018). Effect of territory intruders on the perceived quality of territorial males in an endangered pupfish, [i]Cyprinodon bovinus[/i]. Behaviour 155(6): 465-479. [Abstract]

Echelle, A. A. and Echelle, A. F. (1997). Genetic introgression of endemic taxa by non-natives: a case study with Leon Springs pupfish and sheepshead minnow. Conservation Biology 11: 153-161.

Echelle, A. A., Echelle, A. F. and Edds, D. R. (1987). Population structure of four pupfish species (Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodon) from the Chihuahuan Desert region of New Mexico and Texas: allozymic variation. Copeia 1987: 668-681.

Echelle, A.A. and Miller, Robert Rush. (1974). Rediscovery and redescription of the Leon Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon bovinus, from Pecos County, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 19(2): 179-190.

Garrett, G. P. (1980). Species specificity in the mating systems of Cyprinodon variegatus and Cyprinodon bovinus. Proc. Desert Fishes Council 11: 54–59.

Garrett, G. P., Hubbs, C. and Edwards, R. J. (2002). Threatened fishes of the world: Cyprinodon bovinus Baird & Girard, 1853 (Cyprinodontidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 64: 442.

Hoagstrom, Christopher W. and Osborne, Megan J. (2021). Biogeography of Cyprinodon Across the Great Plains-Chihuahuan Desert Region and Adjacent Areas. Proceedings of the Desert Fishes Council Special Publication 2021: 20-76.

Hubbs, C. 1957. Distributional patterns of Texas fresh-water fishes. Southwest. Nat. 2: 89–104.

Hubbs, C. 1980. Solution to the C. bovinus problem: eradication of a pupfish genome. Proc. Desert Fishes Council 10: 9–18.

Hubbs, C., T. Lucier, E. Marsh, G.P. Garrett, R.J. Edwards & E. Milstead. 1978. Results of an eradication program on the ecological relationships of fishes in Leon Creek, Texas.
Southwest. Nat. 23: 487–496.

Kennedy, S. E. (1977). Life history of the Leon Springs pupfish, Cypriniodon bovinus. Copeia 1977: 93-103.

Miller, Robert Rush. (1961). Man and the changing fish fauna of the American southwest. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 46: 365-404.

Minckley, W. L., Meffe, G. K. and Soltz, D.L. (1991). Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids. In: W.L. Minckley and J.E. Deacon (eds) (eds), Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West, pp. 247-282. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

NatureServe. (2013). Cyprinodon bovinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 25 July 2013.

Miller, Robert Rush. (1961). Man and the changing fish fauna of the American southwest. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 46: 365-404.


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