Cyprinodon arcuatus Minckley, Miller & Norris, 2002:699

Santa Cruz pupfish, Monkey Springs pupfish



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct (Burkhead, 2012)

Last record: 1971 (Miller et al. 1989:30)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct


Estimated date of extinction: 1971 (Burkhead, 2012)



upper Santa Cruz River basin, Arizona, USA & Sonora, Mexico


Biology & Ecology




CAS 214579 (20 fish)


See here:






Original scientific description:

W. L. Minckley, Robert Rush Miller and Steven Mark Norris. (2002). Three New Pupfish Species, Cyprinodon (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae), from Chihuahua, México, and Arizona, USA. Copeia 2002(3): 687-705. [Abstract]


Other references:

Burkhead, Noel M. (2012). Extinction Rates in North American Freshwater Fishes, 1900–2010. BioScience 62(9): 798-808.

Hoagstrom, Christopher W. and Osborne, Megan J. (2021). Biogeography of Cyprinodon Across the Great Plains-Chihuahuan Desert Region and Adjacent Areas. Proceedings of the Desert Fishes Council Special Publication 2021: 20-76.

Jelks, Howard L., Walsh, Stephen J., Burkhead, Noel M., Contreras-Balderas, Salvador, Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo, Hendrickson, Dean A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, Nicholas E., McCormick, Frank, Nelson, Joseph F., Platania, Steven P., Porter, Brady A., Renaud, Claude B., Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacabo, Taylor, Eric B. and Warren, Melvin L. Jr. (2008). Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.

Miller, R. R., Williams, J. D. and Williams, J. E. (1989). Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14(6): 22-38.

Minckley, W. L. (1973). Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona. 293 pp.

Minckley, W.L. and Deacon, J.E. 1991. Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

Minckley, W.L. and Marsh, P.C. 2009. Inland fishes of the greater Southwest: chronicle of a vanishing biota. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

Minckley, W.L., Meffe, G.K. and Soltz, D.L. 1991. Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids. In: W.L. Minckley and J.E. Deacon (eds) (eds), Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West, pp. 247-282. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

NatureServe. (2013a). Cyprinodon arcuatus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 14 July 2013.

NatureServe. (2013b). Cyprinodon arcuatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T202375A15362268. Accessed on 14 June 2022.

Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Perez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts.


<< Back to the Neopterygii (New-Finned Fishes) database