Cyprinodon alvarezi Miller, 1976

Potosí pupfish, Perrito de Potosi



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild

Last record: 1994

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild



Potosí Spring, Nuevo León, Mexico


Biology & Ecology







Burkhead (2012:805) includes two images, one of the Potosí Spring in 1972, and then its replacement by a grassed area in 1995.


Photographs of the Potosí Pupfish (Cyprinodon alvarezi) in an aquarium environment can be seen here:



Original scientific description:

Miller, R. R. (1976). Four new Pupfishes of the genus Cyprinodon from México, with a key to the C. eximius complex. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 75: 68-75.


Other references:

Bullido, Juan Vicente Pérez (2003). Cyprinodon - Cyprinodon alvarezi "El Potosí". Sociedad Española de Killis, April 2003.

Burkhead, Noel M. (2012). Extinction Rates in North American Freshwater Fishes, 1900–2010. BioScience 62(9): 798-808.

Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). Cyprinodon alvarezi. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 22 July 2012.

Contreras-Balderas, S. and Lozano-Vilano, M. L. 1996. Survival status of the Sandia and Potosí Valleys endemic pupfishes and crayfishes from the Mexican plateau in Nuevo león, Mexico, with Comments on Associated Extinct Snails. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 7(1): 33-40.

Dalrymple, S. E., Abeli, T., Ewen, J. G., Gilbert, T. C., Hogg, C. J., Lloyd, N. A., Moehrenschlager, A., Rodríguez, J. P. and Smith, D. (2023). Addressing Threats and Ecosystem Intactness to Enable Action for Extinct in the Wild Species. Diversity 15: 268.

Jelks, Howard L., Walsh, Stephen J., Burkhead, Noel M., Contreras-Balderas, Salvador, Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo, Hendrickson, Dean A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, Nicholas E., McCormick, Frank, Nelson, Joseph F., Platania, Steven P., Porter, Brady A., Renaud, Claude B., Schmitter-Soto, Juan Jacabo, Taylor, Eric B. and Warren, Melvin L. Jr. (2008). Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.

Koldewey, H., Cliffe, A., and Zimmerman, B. 2013. Breeding programme priorities and management techniques for native and exotic freshwater fishes in Europe. International Zoo Yearbook 47: 93-101.

Lozano-Vilano, M. L. and Maza-Benignos, M. De La. (2016). Diversity and status of Mexican killifishes. Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/jfb.13186 [Abstract]

Maceda-Veiga, A., Domínguez-Domínguez, O., Escribano-Alacid, J., and Lyons, J. (2016). The aquarium hobby: can sinners become saints in freshwater fish conservation? Fish and Fisheries 17(3): 860-874.

Miller, Robert Rush, Minckley, W. L. and Norris, S. M. (2005). Freshwater Fishes of México. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Smith, Donal et al. (2023). Extinct in the wild: The precarious state of Earth’s most threatened group of species. Science 379(6634): eadd2889.

Valdes Gonzales, A. (2019). Cyprinodon alvarezi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T6144A3104750. Accessed on 11 June 2022.


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