Azurina eupalama Heller & Snodgrass, 1903

Galápagos damsel(fish)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Missing (Edgar et al., 2010)

Last record: 1982 (1983?)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)


The species has not been recorded since the 1982-1983 El Niño (Allen et al., 2010b).



Galápagos Islands


Biology & Ecology




Ichthyology 29536 (3 specimens; sexes unspecified)


See for full details of the collection of the specimen.






Original scientific description:

Heller, Edmund and Snodgrass, Robert Evans. (1903). Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XV. New fishes. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 5: 189-229.


Other references:

Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, R.,Edgar, G., Merlen, G., Zapata, F. & Barraza, E. (2010a). Azurina eupalama. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 25 July 2012.

Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, R.,Edgar, G., Merlen, G., Zapata, F., Barraza, E. 2010b. Azurina eupalama. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T184017A8219600. Accessed on 06 July 2022.

Chen, D., Cane, M.A., Kaplan, A., Zebiak, S.E and Huang, D. 2004. Predictability of El Niño over the past 148 years. Nature 428: 733-736.

Constant, P. (2007) Marine Life of the Galapagos. The Diver's guide to Fishes, Whales, Dolphins and marine Invertebrates, 307 pp.

del Monte-Luna, P, Lluch-Belda, D, Serviere-Zaragoza, E, Carmona, R, Reyes-Bonilla, H, Aurioles-Gamboa, D, Castro-Aguirre, JL, del Próo SA, G, Trujillo-Millán, O and Brook, BW (2007) Marine extinctions revisited. Fish and Fisheries 8(2), 107–122.

del Monte-Luna, Pablo et al. (2023). A review of recent and future marine extinctions. Cambridge Prisms: Extinction 1: e13.

Dulvy, Nicholas K., Pinnegar, John K. and Reynolds, John D. (2009). Holocene extinctions in the sea, pp. 129-150. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Dulvy, NK, Sadovy, Y and Reynolds, JD (2003) Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries 4(1), 25–64.

Edgar, Graham J., Banks, Stuart A., Brandt, Margarita, Bustamante, Rodrigo H., Chiriboga, Angel, Earle, Sylvia A., Garske, Lauren E., Glynn, Peter W., Grove, Jack S., Henderson, Scott, Hickman, Cleve P., Miller, Kathy A., Rivera, Fernando and Wellington, Gerald M. (2010). El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galapagos marine species. Global Change Biology 16(10): 2876-2890.

Glynn, P.W. and Ault, J.S. 2000. A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19: 1-23.

Grove, J.S. 1985. Influence of the 1982-1983 El Niño event upon the ichthyofauna of the Galápagos archipelago. Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands, Quito, Ecuador.

Grove, J. S. and Lavenberg, R. J. (1997). Fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 863 pp. [pp. 473-474]

Grove, J.S. Long, D.J., Robertson, D.R. & Victor, B.C. (2022) List of Fishes of the Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation, 39, 14–22.

McCosker, John E. and Rosenblatt, Richard H. (2010). The Fishes of the Galápagos Archipelago: An Update. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 61(suppl.II, no.11): 167-195.

Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.

Soto, C.G. 2002. The potential impacts of global climate change on marine protected areas. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11(3): 181-195.


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