Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl ex. A. Eaton

Running buffalo clover



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status




Kansas (eastern) & West Virginia (central), USA (eastern)


Biology & Ecology










Barker, D.J., and P.M. Sparks. 2014. Running buffalo clover-lost, forgotten, or overlooked? American Forage and Grassland Council AFGC.

Bartgis, Rodney L. (1985). Rediscovery of Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. ex A. Eaton. Rhodora 87(851): 425-429. [Abstract]

Becus, M.S., and Klein, J.B. 2002. Mowing schedule improves reproduction and growth of endangered running buffalo clover (Ohio). Ecological Restoration 20(4): 295- 296.

Brancheau, Theodore J. (2019). Stage Based Matrix Modeling of [i]Trifolium stoloniferum[/i] Restoration Populations at Taylor Fork Ecological Area, Madison County, Kentucky. Honors Thesis, Eastern Kentucky University.

Brown, D. 2015. Running buffalo clover locations at Taylor Fork Ecological Area. [Electronic image]. Eastern Kentucky University.

Burkhart, J.Q. 2010. Ecology of Trifolium stoloniferum (Muhl. ex A. Eaton), a federally endangered vascular plant, at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia [Master’s thesis]. Division of Forestry and Natural Resources. West Virginia University. Morgantown, West Virginia.

Burkhart, J.Q., Rentch, J.R. and Schuler, T.M. 2013. Effects of Forest Management on Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. ex A. Eaton) Distribution and Abundance in the Fernow Experimental Forest. Natural Areas Journal, 33(2):156-162.

Campbell, J. J. N., Evans, M., Medley, M.E., and Taylor, N.L. 1988. Buffalo clovers in Kentucky (Trifolium stoloniferum and T. reflexum): Historical records, presettlement environment, rediscovery, endangered status, cultivation, and chromosome number. Rhodora 90:399-418.

Crawford, D. et al. (1998). Genetic variation in Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum: Fabaceae) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers (RAPDs). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85(1): 81-89.

Crawford, D.J., and Windus, J. 1995. Genetic variation in running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. ex A. Eaton) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD): Year one of a two-year study. The Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Natural Areas and Preserves. Project No: E-2-3. Study No: 208.

Cusick, A. W. (1988). Trifolium stoloniferum (Fabaceae) rediscovered in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 89(2): 6.

Cusick, A. W. (1989). Trifolium stoloniferum (Fabaceae) in Ohio: history, habitats, decline and rediscovery. Sida 13(4): 467-480.

Dart-Padover, A. Brown, D. and Koslow, J. 2014. Running buffalo clover stage definitions. Internal Document. 

Dart-Padover, A., Koslow, J., and D. Brown. 2016. Population Trends of the Federally Endangered Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) at the Blue Grass Army Depot, Kentucky. Natural Areas Journal 36(2):137-145.

Franklin, C. 1998. Self-compatibility and variation in seed production among Ohio populations of federally endangered Trifolium stoloniferum (Fabaceae). Master's thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

Hattenbach, M.J. 1996. Edaphic relations of an endangered plant, Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. ex. A. Eaton. M.S. Thesis. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Homoya, M. A., Aldrich, J. R. and Jacquart, E. M. (1989). The rediscovery of the globally endangered clover, [i]Trifolium stoloniferum[/i], in Indiana. Rhodora 91(866): 207-212.

Jacobs, J. 1987. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Determination of endangered status for Trifolium stoloniferum (running buffalo clover). Federal Register 52: 21478-21481.

Koslow, J., D. Brown, B. King, T. Brancheau, and C. Hayes. 2017. Running Buffalo Clover at the Blue Grass Army Depot 2017 Report. Page 6. Eastern Kentucky University.

Koslow, J., B. King, T. Allen, T. Brancheau, and N. Koenig. 2018. Running Buffalo Clover Census and Light Requirement Research: 2018 Report. Page 10. Eastern Kentucky University.

Kubesch, Jonathan Omar Cole. (2017). Investigating the potential for use of the endangered species, running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) on reclaimed mine-land. 2017 Richard J. and Martha D. Denman Undergraduate Research Forum. 22nd. [Abstract]

Kubesch, Jonathan Omar Cole. (2018). Edaphic and morphological factors affecting running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) ecology. Thesis, Ohio State University. 106 pp.

LaBella, Jessica, LaFantasie, Jordge, Thomas-Van Gundy, Melissa and McDonald, Louis M. (2022). Effect of light interception on photosynthetic capacity and vegetative reproduction of running buffalo clover. Research Note NRS-310. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 24 pp.

Leugers, S.D. 2016. A Review of the Current Status of Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) in Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey.

Morris, D.R., V.C. Baligar, T.M. Schuler, and P.J. Harmon. (2002). Biological nitrogen fixation and habitat of running buffalo clover. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25:735–746.

McKenzie, P., Hayes, P., Volenberg, L., Harpe, V.C., Shuette, B. (2018). New upland sites for Trifolium stoloniferum (Fabaceae) in Missouri, with comments on the identification of sterile material. Missouriensis. Volume 35.

Missouri Department of Conservation. (2000). Best management practices: running buffalo clover. Jefferson City, Missouri.

Pauley, J., Koslow, J. (2014). Fine-scale monitoring of running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) restoration populations at Taylor Fork Ecological Area. Internal document.

Perkins, Chelsea L. (2015). Fine-scale monitoring of running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) restoration populations at Taylor Fork Ecological Area. Bachelor Thesis, Eastern Kentucky University.

Sehgal, O. P. and Payne, L. (1995). Viruses Affecting Running Buffalo Clover, Trifolium stoloniferum. Plant Disease 79:320.

Sparks, P. M. and D.J. Barker. 2013. Susceptibility of Running Buffalo Clover, an endangered species, to Soybean Cyst Nematode. Ohio State University.

Smith, T.E. 1998. The reintroduction of running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) in Missouri 1989-1998. Missouriensis. Volume 19.

Sparks, P.M., and D.J. Barker. 2013. Vegetative reproduction of Trifoilum stoloniferum stolons. Ohio State University

Sparks, P.M., and D.J. Barker. 2013. Susceptibility of Running Buffalo Clover, an endangered species, to Soybean Cyst Nematode. Ohio State University.

[USFWS] US Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. US Fish and Wildlife Service: Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) Recovery Plan: First Revision. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Lakes-Big Rivers Region (Region 3), Fort Snelling, MN.

[USFWS] US Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011. Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Ohio Field Office, Columbus, OH.

Walter, Kerry S. and Gillett, Harriet J. (eds.). (1998). 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK: IUCN – The World Conservation Union. lxiv + 862 pp.

Watt, L. 2011. Edaphic, micro-topographic, and light characteristics associated with the endangered running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) at the Blue Grass Army Depot, Madison County, Kentucky [Master’s thesis]. ProQuest LLC. Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, Kentucky.

Yatskievych, G. 2006. Steyermark's Flora of Missouri, Volume 2. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, MO.


<< Back to the Fabales database