Solenodon paradoxus Brandt, 1833

Hispaniolan solenodon, Haitian solenodon



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Rediscovered in 2007

IUCN RedList status: Endangered





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Brandt, J. F. (1833). De Solenodonte, novo mammalium insectivorum genere. Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg Ser. 6(2): 459-478.


Other references:

Allen, Glover Morrill. (1942). Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere with the Marine Species of All the Oceans. New York, N.Y.: American Committee for International Wildlife Protection, Special Publications 11: 1-620.

Allen, Joel Asaph. (1908). Notes on Solenodon paradoxus Brandt. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 24(23): 505-517.

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Bannikova, Anna A. (2018). Molecular evolution of Eulipotyphla: unresolved problems of phylogenetic reconstruction. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy 29(XI ATIt Congress Supplement): 5.

Borroto-Páez, Rafael and Mancina, Carlos A. (2017). Biodiversity and conservation of Cuban mammals: past, present, and invasive species. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 964-985.

Bridges, W. (1936). The Haitian Solenodon. Bull. New York Zool. Soc. 39(1): 13-18.

Casewell, Nicholas R. et al. (2019). Solenodon genome reveals convergent evolution of venom in eulipotyphlan mammals. PNAS. doi:

Cooke, Siobhán B., Dávalos, Liliana M., Mychajliw, Alexis M. Turvey, Samuel T. and Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Anthropogenic Extinction Dominates Holocene Declines of West Indian Mammals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 48: 301-327.

Dobson, G. E. (1882). A Monograph of the Insectivora. Systematic and Anatomical. Part I. Including the families Erinaceidae, Centetidae and Solenodontidae. London: Van Voorst.

Fisher, Diana O. (2011). Trajectories from extinction: where are missing mammals rediscovered? Global Ecology & Biogeography 20: 415-425. [Appendix S1]

Gervais, Paul. (1844). Atlas de zoologie: ou collection de 100 planches. Paris: Germer Bailliere. [pl. 13]

Grigorev, Kirill et al. (Accepted, 2018). Innovative assembly strategy contributes to understanding the evolution and conservation genetics of the endangered Solenodon paradoxus from the island of Hispaniola. GigaScience. [Abstract]

Hutterer, R. 2005. Order Soricomorpha. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 220-311. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Joslin, Paul and Maryanka, Daphne. (1968). Endangered Mammals of the World: Report on Status and Action Treatment. IUCN Publications, New Series, Supplementary Paper No. 13: 34 pp.

McDowell, Samuel Booker Jnr. (1958). The Greater Antillean Insectivores. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 115(3): 113-214, figures 1-46, tables 1, 2.

Mohr, E. (1936). Biologische Beobachtungen an Solenodon paradoxus Brandt. Gefangenschart I. Zool. Anz. 113: 177-188.

Mohr, E. (1936). Biologische Beobachtungen an Solenodon paradoxus Brandt. Gefangenschart I. Zool. Anz. 116: 65-76.

Mohr, E. (1937). Biologische Beobachtungen an Solenodon paradoxus Brandt. Gefangenschart I. Zool. Anz. 117: 223-241.

Mohr, E. (1938). Biologische Beobachtungen an Solenodon paradoxus Brandt. Gefangenschart I. Zool. Anz. 122: 132-143.

Mohr, E. (1939). Biologische Beobachtungen an Solenodon paradoxus Brandt. Gefangenschart I. Zool. Anz. 126: 94-95.

Mohr, E. (1943). Biologische Beobachtungen an Solenodon paradoxus Brandt. Gefangenschart I. Zool. Anz. 141: 264-268.

Mychajliw, Alexis M. et al. (2022). Stable isotopes reveal seasonal dietary responses to agroforestry in a venomous mammal, the Hispaniolan solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus). Ecology and Evolution 12: e8761.

Olson, D. M. and Dinerstein, E. 1998. The Global 200: A Representation Approach to Conserving the Earth's Most Biologically Valuable Ecoregions. Conservation Biology 12(3): 502.

Poduschka, W. (1977a). Die Überlebenschancen des Schlitzrüsslers. Säugetierschutz Zt. furTheriophylaxe 5: 3-9.

Poduschka, W. (1977b). Project 1268. Solenodon - Cuba, Haiti and Dominican Republic. World Wildlife Yearbook 1967-77: 197-198. Switzerland: WWF.

Poduschka, W. (1978). Solenodon in Cuba, Dominican Rep. and Haiti - Conservation Measures. Report to IUCN/WWF.

Poduschka, W. (1979). Project 1538. Solenodon in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Haiti - Conservation. World Wildlife Yearbook 1978-79: 174. Switzerland: WWF.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Shuker, Karl. (1993). The lost ark: new and rediscovered animals of the 20th century. London: Harper Collins.

Thornback, Jane and Jenkins, Martin (compilers). (1982). The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened Mammalian Taxa of the Americas and the Australasian Zoogeographic Region (Excluding Cetacea). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 516 pp.

Turvey S. T., Fernández-Secades C., Nuñez-Miño J. M., Hart T., Martinez P., Brocca J. L., and Young R. P. (2014). Is local ecological knowledge a useful conservation tool for small mammals in a Caribbean multicultural landscape? Biological Conservation 169: 189–197.

Turvey, S. & Incháustegui, S. 2008. Solenodon paradoxus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T20321A9186243. Downloaded on 16 February 2017.

Turvey, Samuel T., Meredith, H. M. R. and Scofield, R. P. (2008). Continued survival of Hispaniolan solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus) in Haiti. Oryx 42: 611-614.

Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Past and present of insular Caribbean mammals: understanding Holocene extinctions to inform modern biodiversity conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 913-917.

Verrill, A. H. (1907). Notes on the habits and external characters of the Solenodon of San Domingo (Solenodon paradoxus). Amer. J. of Sci. 24: 55-57.

Walker, E. P. (1975). Mammals of the World. Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Woods, C. A. (1976). Solenodon paradoxus in southern Haiti. J. Mammal. 57(3): 591-592.

Woods, C. A. (1981). Last endemic mammals in Hispaniola. Oryx 16(2): 146-152.


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