Solenodon cubanus Peters, 1861:169

Buff-headed Cuban solenodon, Cuban solenodon, Almiqui



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Solenodon cubanus poeyanus Barbour, 1944; Solenodon cubana Peters, 1861:169; Atopogale cubana Peters, 1861:169


Conservation Status

Last record: 1944 (1890?)

Rediscovered in 1975

IUCN RedList status: Endangered





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:
Peters, W. H. C. (1861). Notes on Mber. K. preuss. Akad Wiss Berlin. 169.
Other references:

Allen, Glover Morrill. (1942). Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere with the Marine Species of All the Oceans. New York, N.Y.: American Committee for International Wildlife Protection, Special Publications 11: 1-620.

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Bannikova, Anna A. (2018). Molecular evolution of Eulipotyphla: unresolved problems of phylogenetic reconstruction. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy 29(XI ATIt Congress Supplement): 5.

Barbour, T. (1944). The Solenodons of Cuba. Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club 23: 1-8.

Canas Alcober, R. (1971). The last Almiquis (Solenodon cubanus) in captivity. Zool. Garten N.F., Leipzig 40(1-2): 1-3.

Fisher, Diana O. (2011). Trajectories from extinction: where are missing mammals rediscovered? Global Ecology & Biogeography 20: 415-425. [Appendix S1]

Hall, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. Second ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1:1-600 + 90, 2:601-1181 + 90.

Hall, E. R., and K. R. Kelson. 1959. The mammals of North America. Ronald Press Co., New York, 1:1-546; 2:547-1083 + 79.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Hutterer, R. (2005). Order Soricomorpha. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 220-311. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Joslin, Paul and Maryanka, Daphne. (1968). Endangered Mammals of the World: Report on Status and Action Treatment. IUCN Publications, New Series, Supplementary Paper No. 13: 34 pp.

Kratochvil, J. (1976). A Rediscovery of Atopogale cubanus: Insectivora, Mammalia. Zoologicke Listy, 25, 113-115.

McDowell, Samuel Booker Jnr. (1958). The Greater Antillean Insectivores. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 115(3): 113-214, figures 1-46, tables 1, 2.

Orihuela, Johanset et al. (2020a). Late Holocene land vertebrate fauna from Cueva de los Nesofontes, Western Cuba: stratigraphy, last appearance dates, diversity and paleoecology. bioRxiv preprint. doi:

Orihuela, Johanset, Pérez Orozco, Leonel, Álvarez Licourt, Jorge L., Viera Muñoz, Ricardo A., and Santana Barani, Candido. (2020b). Late Holocene land vertebrate fauna from Cueva de los Nesofontes, Western Cuba: Stratigraphy, chronology, diversity, and paleoecology. Palaeontologia Electronica, 23(3):a57.

Ottenwalder, J. A. (2001). Systematics and biogeography of the West Indian genus Solenodon. Pp. 253-329, in Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and perspectives (C. A. Woods and F. E. Sergile, eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 582 pp.

Poduschka, W. (1977). Project 1268. Solenodon - Cuba, Haiti and Dominican Republic. World Wildlife Yearbook 1967-77: 197-198. Switzerland: WWF.

Poduschka, W., and C. Poduschka. 1983. The taxonomy of the extant Solenodontidae (Mammalia: Insectivora), a synthesis. Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung I, 192: 225-238.

Sato, Jun J. et al. (2016). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon. Scientific Reports 6: 31173.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Soy, J. and Mancina, C. A. (2008). Solenodon cubanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T20320A9185957. Downloaded on 26 January 2016.

Thornback, Jane and Jenkins, Martin (compilers). (1982). The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened Mammalian Taxa of the Americas and the Australasian Zoogeographic Region (Excluding Cetacea). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 516 pp.

Varona, L. S. (1974a). Catalogo de los mamiferos vivientes y extinguidos de las Antillas. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.

Varona, L. S. (1974b). The Cuban Solenodon. Oryx 12(5): 542.

Varona, L. S. (1976). The present status of the Almiqui Solenodon (Atopogale) cubana. Unpublished report. 3 pp.

Varona, L. S. (1977). Cuban Solenodon surveyed. Oryx 14(1): 7.

Varona, L. S. (1980a). Mamiferos de Cuba. Editorial Gente Nueva, Havana, Cuba.

Varona, L. S. (1980b). Protection in Cuba. Oryx 15(3): 282-284.

Varona, L. S. (1983). Remarks on the biology and zoogeography of Solenodon (Atopogale) cubanus Peters, 1861 (Mammalia, Insectivora). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 53:93-98.

Walker, E. P. (1975). Mammals of the World. Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press. [short summary]


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