Solenodon cubanus Peters, 1861:169

Buff-headed Cuban solenodon, Cuban solenodon, Almiqui



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Solenodon cubanus poeyanus Barbour, 1944; Solenodon cubana Peters, 1861:169; Atopogale cubana Peters, 1861:169


Conservation Status

Last record: 1944 (1890?)

Rediscovered in 1975

IUCN RedList status: Endangered





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:
Peters, W. H. C. (1861). Notes on Mber. K. preuss. Akad Wiss Berlin. 169.
Other references:

Allen, Glover Morrill. (1942). Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere with the Marine Species of All the Oceans. New York, N.Y.: American Committee for International Wildlife Protection, Special Publications 11: 1-620.

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Bannikova, Anna A. (2018). Molecular evolution of Eulipotyphla: unresolved problems of phylogenetic reconstruction. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy 29(XI ATIt Congress Supplement): 5.

Barbour, T. (1944). The Solenodons of Cuba. Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club 23: 1-8.

Borroto-Páez, Rafael and Mancina, Carlos A. (2017). Biodiversity and conservation of Cuban mammals: past, present, and invasive species. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 964-985.

Canas Alcober, R. (1971). The last Almiquis (Solenodon cubanus) in captivity. Zool. Garten N.F., Leipzig 40(1-2): 1-3.

Cooke, Siobhán B., Dávalos, Liliana M., Mychajliw, Alexis M. Turvey, Samuel T. and Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Anthropogenic Extinction Dominates Holocene Declines of West Indian Mammals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 48: 301-327.

Fisher, Diana O. (2011). Trajectories from extinction: where are missing mammals rediscovered? Global Ecology & Biogeography 20: 415-425. [Appendix S1]

Hall, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. Second ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1:1-600 + 90, 2:601-1181 + 90.

Hall, E. R., and K. R. Kelson. 1959. The mammals of North America. Ronald Press Co., New York, 1:1-546; 2:547-1083 + 79.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Hutterer, R. (2005). Order Soricomorpha. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 220-311. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Joslin, Paul and Maryanka, Daphne. (1968). Endangered Mammals of the World: Report on Status and Action Treatment. IUCN Publications, New Series, Supplementary Paper No. 13: 34 pp.

Kratochvil, J. (1976). A Rediscovery of Atopogale cubanus: Insectivora, Mammalia. Zoologicke Listy, 25, 113-115.

McDowell, Samuel Booker Jnr. (1958). The Greater Antillean Insectivores. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 115(3): 113-214, figures 1-46, tables 1, 2.

Orihuela, Johanset et al. (2020a). Late Holocene land vertebrate fauna from Cueva de los Nesofontes, Western Cuba: stratigraphy, last appearance dates, diversity and paleoecology. bioRxiv preprint. doi:

Orihuela, Johanset, Pérez Orozco, Leonel, Álvarez Licourt, Jorge L., Viera Muñoz, Ricardo A., and Santana Barani, Candido. (2020b). Late Holocene land vertebrate fauna from Cueva de los Nesofontes, Western Cuba: Stratigraphy, chronology, diversity, and paleoecology. Palaeontologia Electronica, 23(3):a57.

Ottenwalder, J. A. (2001). Systematics and biogeography of the West Indian genus Solenodon. Pp. 253-329, in Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and perspectives (C. A. Woods and F. E. Sergile, eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 582 pp.

Poduschka, W. (1977). Project 1268. Solenodon - Cuba, Haiti and Dominican Republic. World Wildlife Yearbook 1967-77: 197-198. Switzerland: WWF.

Poduschka, W., and C. Poduschka. 1983. The taxonomy of the extant Solenodontidae (Mammalia: Insectivora), a synthesis. Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung I, 192: 225-238.

Sato, Jun J. et al. (2016). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon. Scientific Reports 6: 31173.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Soy, J. and Mancina, C. A. (2008). Solenodon cubanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T20320A9185957. Downloaded on 26 January 2016.

Thornback, Jane and Jenkins, Martin (compilers). (1982). The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened Mammalian Taxa of the Americas and the Australasian Zoogeographic Region (Excluding Cetacea). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 516 pp.

Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Past and present of insular Caribbean mammals: understanding Holocene extinctions to inform modern biodiversity conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 913-917.

Varona, L. S. (1974a). Catalogo de los mamiferos vivientes y extinguidos de las Antillas. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.

Varona, L. S. (1974b). The Cuban Solenodon. Oryx 12(5): 542.

Varona, L. S. (1976). The present status of the Almiqui Solenodon (Atopogale) cubana. Unpublished report. 3 pp.

Varona, L. S. (1977). Cuban Solenodon surveyed. Oryx 14(1): 7.

Varona, L. S. (1980a). Mamiferos de Cuba. Editorial Gente Nueva, Havana, Cuba.

Varona, L. S. (1980b). Protection in Cuba. Oryx 15(3): 282-284.

Varona, L. S. (1983). Remarks on the biology and zoogeography of Solenodon (Atopogale) cubanus Peters, 1861 (Mammalia, Insectivora). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 53:93-98.

Walker, E. P. (1975). Mammals of the World. Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press. [short summary]


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