The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

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Paramylodon harlani Owen, 1840

Harlan's ground sloth

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Glossotherium harlani Owen, 1840; Mylodon harlani Owen, 1840

 

Conservation Status

Last recorded in the late Pleistocene

 

Distribution

Americas

 

Biology

 

 

Hypodigm

 

 

Media

 

 

References

Agenbroad, L. D., and W. R. Downs. 1984. A robust tapir from northern Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 19(2): 91-99.

Akersten, William A., and H. Gregory McDonald. (1991). Nothrotheriops from the Pleistocene of Oklahoma and Paleogeography of the Genus. Southwestern Naturalist 36: 178-185.

Bargo, Susana et al. (2006). Hypsodonty in Pleistocene ground sloths. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 51(1): 53-61.

Brown, B. (1903). A new genus of ground sloth from the Pleistocene of Nebraska. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 19: 569-583.

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Faith, J.T., Surovell, T.A., 2009. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 20641-20645.

Ferrusquía-Villafranca I., Arroyo-Cabrales J., Martínez-Hernández E., Gama-Castro J., Ruiz-González J., Polaco O.J., Johnson E. 2010 Pleistocene mammals of Mexico: A critical review of regional chronofaunas, climate change response and biogeographic provinciality. Quaternary International 217(1-2): 53-104.

Gilmour, Daniel A. et al. (2015). Chronology and ecology of late Pleistocene megafauna in the northern Willamette Valley, Oregon. Quaternary Research 83: 127-136.

Grass, Andy Darrell. (2014). Inferring lifestyle and locomotor habits of extinct sloths through scapula morphology and implications for convergent evolution in extant sloths. PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa.

Long, Katherine M. et al. (2018). Allometric shape changes during ontogeny of the Rancho La Brea ground sloth Paramylodon harlani, pp. 481-483. In: Lucas, Spences G. and Sullivan, Robert M. (eds). Fossil Record 6(1). New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science Bulletin 79.

Hibbard, Claude W. and Taylor, Dwight W. (1960). Two late Pleistocene faunas from southwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan 16(1): 1-223 pp., 16 pls., 18 figs.

Hilton, Richard P., Dailey, D. Charles and McDonald, H. Gregory. (2000). A Late Pleistocene biota from the Arco Arena site, Sacramento, California. PaleoBios 20(1): 7-12.

De Iuliis, Gerardo, Cartelle, Cástor, McDonald, H. Gregory and Pujos, François. (2017). The mylodontine ground sloth Glossotherium tropicum from the Late Pleistocene of Ecuador and Peru. Papers in Palaeontology 3(4): 613-636.

Fuller, Benjamin T. et al. (In Press, 2019). Pleistocene paleoecology and feeding behavior of terrestrial vertebrates recorded in a pre-LGM asphaltic deposit at Rancho La Brea, California. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.109383 [Abstract]

Jefferson, G. T. 1991. A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California. Part two: Mammals. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports 7:1-129.

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 442 pp.

Lucas, Spencer G. (2014). Late Pleistocene mammals from El Hatillo, Panama. Rev. Geol. Amér. Central 50: 139-151.

McAfee R.K. 2009 Reassessment of the cranial characters of Glossotherium and Paramylodon (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Mylodontidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155(4), 885-903.

McDonald, H. Gregory. (1996). Biogeography and Paleoecology of Ground Sloths in California, Arizona and Nevada. SBCMA Quarterly 43(1): 61-65.

McDonald, H. Gregory. (2013). Harlan’s Ground Sloth (Paramylodon harlani) (Xenarthra: Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) of Iowa. Jour. Iowa Acad. Sci. 119: [pagination?].

McDonald, H. Gregory, L. D. Agenbroad, and C. M. Haden. (2004). Late Pleistocene mylodont ground sloth Paramylodon harlani (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Arizona. The Southwestern Naturalist 49(2): 229-238.

McDonald, H. G., and G. S. Morgan. 2011. Ground sloths of New Mexico. Pp. 652-663, in Fossil Record 3 (R. M. Sullivan, S. G,. Lucas, and J. A. Spielmann, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Bulletin 53:i-vi + 1-736.

Mead, J. I., N. J. Czaplewski, and L. D. Agenbroad. 2005. Rancholabrean (Late Pleistocene) mammals and localities of Arizona. Pp. 139-180, in (R. D. McCord, ed.) Vertebrate Paleontology of Arizona, Mesa Southwest Museum Bulletin No. 11.

Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2003. Mammalian biochronology of Blancan and Irvingtonian (Pliocene and Early Pleistocene) faunas from New Mexico. American Museum of Natural History, Bulletin no. 279:269-320.

Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2005. Pleistocene vertebrate faunas in New Mexico from alluvial, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits. Pp. 185-248, in New Mexico's Ice Ages (Lucas, S. G., G. S. Morgan, and K. E. Zeigler, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 28:1-280.

Murray, L. K. 2008. Effects of taxonomic and locality inaccuracies on biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Hueso and Tapiado formations in the Vallecito Creek–Fish Creek Section, Anza-Borrego Desert, California. PhD Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, pp. i-xxiii, 1-532.

Pajak, A. F., III, E. Scott, and C. J. Bell. 1996. A review of the biostratigraphy of Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments in the Elsinore Fault Zone, Riverside County, California. Pp. 28-49, in The Uses of Vertebrate Fossils in Biostratigraphic Correlation (C. J. Bell and S. S. Sumida, eds.). PaleoBios 17(2-4).

Prothero, D. R. and Raymond, K. R. (2011). Stasis in late Pleistocene ground sloths (Paramylodon harlani) from Rancho La Brea, California: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53, p. 624-628.

Robertson, J. (1976). Latest Pleistocene mammals from Haile XV A, Alachua County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 20(3): 111-186.

Ruez, Dennis R. Jnr. (2005). Diet of Pleistocene Paramylodon harlani (Xenarthra: Mylodontidae): review of methods and preliminary use of carbon isotopes. Texas. J. Sci. 57(4): 329-344.

Russell D.A., Rich F.J., Schneider V., Lynch-Stieglitz J. 2009 A warm thermal enclave in the Late Pleistocene of the South-eastern United States. Biological Reviews 84(2), 173-202.

Schultz, C. B. 1943. Some artifact sites of early man in the Great Plains and adjacent areas. American Antiquity 8(3):242-295.

Schultz, J. R. 1937. A Late Quaternary mammal fauna from the tar seeps of McKittrick, California. Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, 202 pp + 2 plates.

Simpson, George Gaylord. (1929). Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County, Florida. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 56: 561-599.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. (2003). Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12): 3403-3403.

Springer, K., E. Scott, C. Sagebiel, and L. K. Murray. 2009. The Diamond Valley Lake local fauna: Late Pleistocene vertebrates from inland southern California. Pp. 217-235, in Papers on geology, vertebrate paleontology, and biostratigraphy in honor of Michael O. Woodburne (L. G. Albright, III, ed.). Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 65, Flagstaff, Arizona.

Stock, C., and J. M. Harris. 1992. Rancho la Brea: A record of Pleistocene life in California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series no. 37, 7th ed.:i-xiv + 1-113.

Wagner, H. M., and D. R. Prothero. 2001. Magnetic stratigraphy of the Late Pliocene mammal-bearing deposits from Gypsum Ridge, San Bernardino County, California. Pp. 369-376, in Magnetic Stratigraphy of the Pacific Coast Cenozoic (D. R. Prothero, ed.). Pacific Section SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Book 91.

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