Pacifastacus nigrescens (Stimpson, 1857:87)

Sooty crayfish



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Astacus nigrescens Stimpson, 1857:87 (basionym); Potamobius (Potamobius) nigrescens (Stimpson, 1857:87); Gambelly nigrescens (Stimpson, 1857:87)


Conservation Status


Last record: late 1800's

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



California, USA


Biology & Ecology




"[type specimen/s] Probably destroyed in the Chicago fire in 1871" (Faxon, 1914:408)






Original scientific description:

Stimpson, William. (1857a). Notices of New Species of Crustacea in Western North America; Being an Abstract from a Paper to be Published in the Journal of the Society. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 6(6): 84-89.


Other references:

Birstein, Ya. A. and Vinogradov, L. G. (1934). Presnovodnye decapods USSR I ikh geograficheskoe rasprostranenie (Predvaritel’noe soobshchenie) (Freshwater Decapoda of the U.S.S.R. and their geographical distribution (a preliminary report)). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (Zoological Journal) 13(1): 39-70.

Bonnet, P. (1930). Crayfish. California Fish and Game 16(3): 212-216.

Bott, R. (1950). Die flusskrebse Europas (Decapoda, Astacidae). Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 483:1-36, 24 figs., 6 pls.

Bouchard, R. W. (1977). Distribution, systematics status, and ecological notes on five poorly known species of crayfishes in western North America (Decapoda: Astacidae and Cambaridae). Freshwater Crayfish 3: 409-423.

Bouvier, E. L. (1940). Faune de France, 37 Decapodes Marcheurs. Paris, Paul Lechevalier et File, 404 pp, 222 figs, 14 pls.

Brocchi, M. (1875). Recherches sur les Organes Genitaux males des crustacés decapodes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, series 6, 2(2): 1-131, 7 plates.

Cabantous, M. A. (1976). Introduction and rearing of Pacifastacus at the research center of Les Clouzioux 18450 Drinon S/Sauldre, France. Freshwater Crayfish, 2: 49-53.

Faxon, W. (1884). Descriptions of new species of cambarus to which is added a synonymical list of the known species of cambarus and Astacus. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Science, 20: 107-158.

Faxon, W. (1885a). A list of the Astacidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8: 356-361.

Faxon, W. (1885b). Revision of the Astacidae. Part I. The genera cambarus and Astacus. Memories of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College, 10(4): i-vi + 1-186, 10 pls.

Faxon, W. (1889). Notes on North American crayfishes–family Astacidae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 12(785): 619-634.

Faxon, W. (1914). Notes on the crayfishes. Memories of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College, 40(8): 351-427+13 plates.

Fetzner, J. W. (2008). "Pacifasticus nigrescens" on Crayfish Taxonomy Browser. Available at: Accessed: 25 April 2011.

Gherardi, F. (2007). Understanding invasive crayfish, pp. 507-542. In: Gherardi, F. (ed.). Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution and threats. Springer, Dordrecht.

Hagen, H. A. (1870). Monograph of the North American Astacidae. Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard Cambridge (Massachusetts). 3: viii+1–111+11 plates.

Hay, W. P. (1899). Synopses of North–American invertebrates. Vi. The Astacidae of North America. The American Naturalist 33: 957-966.

Holmes, S. J. (1900). Synopsis of California stalk–eyed Crustacea. The California Academy of Science 7: 1-248.

Huxley, T. H. (1880). The crayfish: an introduction to the study of zoology. London, C. K . Paul, 371pp. (same edition was published by D. Appleton, New York, in 1880; published by C. K. Paul, in 1884 fourth edition; in 1889 fifth edition; in 1896 sixth edition)

Kawai, Tadashi. (2012). Re–examination of Pacifastacus nigrescens (Decapoda: Astacidae). Crustacean Research, Special Number 7: 75-83.

Kawai, Tadashi. (2016). Re-examination of species in the Pacifastacus subgenus Hobbsastacus (Decapoda: Astacidae). Freshwater Crayfish 22(1): 61-80.

Kingsley, J. S. (1899). Synopses of North–American invertebrates. IV. Astacoid and Thalassinoid Crustacea. The American Naturalist, 33(394): 819-824.

Lockington, W. N. (1878). Remarks upon the thalassinidea and Astacidea of the Pacific Coast of North America, with description of a new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 5, 2(10): 299-304.

Miller, G. C. (1960). The taxonomic and certain biological aspects of the crayfish of Oregon and Washington. Masters thesis. Oregon States College, Corvallis, USA. 216 pp.

NatureServe. (2011). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: September 18, 2011).

Ortmann, A. E. (1902). the geographical distribution of freshwater decapods and its bearing upon ancient geography. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 41(171): 267-400.

Pennak, R. W. (1953). Fresh–water invertebrates of the United States. New York, The Ronald Press Company. 769 pp.

Pratt, H. S. (1916). A manual of the common invertebrate animals: exclusive of insects. Chicago, A. C. McClurg and Co. 737 pp.

Pratt, H. S. (1935). A manual of the common invertebrate animals: exclusive of insects (Thoroughly revised edition). Philadelphia, P. Blakiston. 854 pp.

Riegel, J. A. (1959). The systematics and distribution of crayfishes in California. Calif. Fish and Game 45(1): 29-50.

Rogers, D. C. (2005). Identification manual to the freshwater Crustacea of the western United States and adjacent areas encountered during bioassessment. Technical Publication #1. EcoAnalysts, Inc., Moscow.

Schuster, G. A., Taylor, C. A. and Cordeiro, J. (2010a). Pacifastacus nigrescens. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. ( Downloaded on 25 April 2011.

Schuster, G. A., Taylor, C. A. and Cordeiro, J. (2010b). Pacifastacus nigrescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T15867A5247659. Downloaded on 26 June 2021.

Stimpson, William. (1857b). On the Crustacea and Echinodermata of the Pacific shores of North America I. Crustacea. Boston Journal of Natural History, 6(4): 444-532.

Taylor, C. A., Schuster, G. A., Cooper, J. E., DiStefano, R. J., Eversole, A. G., Hobbs III, H. H., Robison, H. W., Skelton, C. W. and Thoma, R. F. (2007). A Reassessment of the Conservation Status of Crayfishes of the United States and Canada after 10+ Years of Increased Awareness. Fisheries, American Fisheries Society 32(8): 372-389.

Underwood, L. N. (1886). List of the described species of freshwater Crustacea from America, north of Mexico. Bulletin of Illinois States Laboratory of Natural History, 2(5): 323-386.


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