Wollemia nobilis W.G.Jones, K.D.Hill & J.M.Allen (1995:174)

Wollemi pine



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record (genus/clade): fossil pollen (Dilwynites) (Macphail et al., 2013)

Rediscovered in September 1994 (specimen); post-1994 (recognition) (Woodford, 2000)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Wollemi National Park, New South Wales, Australia


Anatomy & Morphology



Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Jones, Wyn G., Hill, Kenneth D. and Allen, J. M. (1995). Wollemia nobilis, a new living Australian genus and species in the Araucariaceae. Telopea 6(2-3): 173-176.


Other references:

Benson, John and Allen, Chris. (2007). Vegetation associated with Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). Cunninghamia 10(2): 255-262.

Burrows, G. E., Meagher, P. F. and Heady, R. D. (2007). An anatomical assessment of branch abscission and branch-base hydraulic architecture in the endangered Wollemia nobilis. Annals of Botany 99(4): 609-623.

Department of Environment and Conservation NSW. (2006). Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) Recovery Plan. NSW Department of Environment & Conservation, Hurstville, N.S.W.

Dettmann, M. E. and Clifford, H. T. (2005). Biogeography of Araucariaceae. In: J. Dargavel (ed.), Australian and New Zealand Forest Histories. Araucarian Forests, pp. 1-9. Australian Forest History Society, Kingston, ACT.

Dorgan, Anamari. (year?). Endangered species traveling exhibit. NACA Appendix 2.

Earle, Christopher J. (2023). Wollemia nobilis. The Gymnosperm Database (online). Available at: [Accessed 17 October 2023]

Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Gilmore, S. and Hill, K. D. (1997). Relationships of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) and a molecular phylogeny of the Araucariaceae. Telopea 7: 275-291.

Greenfield, A., H. McPherson, T. D. Auld, S. Delaney, C. A. Offord, M. Van Der Merwe, J. Y. S. Yap, and M. Rossetto. (2016). Whole-chloroplast analysis as an approach for fine-tuning the preservation of a highly charismatic but critically endangered species, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 64: 654-658. doi:10.1071/BT16105

Hannam, Peter. (2020, 15 January). Incredible, secret firefighting mission saves famous 'dinosaur trees'. Sydney Morning Herald newspaper.

Hill, K. D. (1998a). 'Gymnosperms' — the paraphyletic stem of seed plants, pp. 497-526. In: McCarthy, Patrick M. (ed.). Flora of Australia Volume 48, Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO Australia. xxii + 766 pp.

Hill, K. D. (1998b). Pinophyta, pp. 545-596 [565-567]. In: McCarthy, Patrick M. (ed.). Flora of Australia Volume 48, Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO Australia. xxii + 766 pp.

Keith, David A., Chalson, Jane M. and Auld, Tony D. (1997). Assessing the status of threatened plants: A new methodology and an application to the vascular flora of New South Wales. Project No. 450, Endangered Species Program. Canberra: Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia.

Mackenzie, B., S. Clarke, H. Zimmer, E. Liew, M. Phelan, C. Offord, L. Menke, D. Crust, J. Bragg, H. McPherson, M. Rossetto, D. Coote, J. Yap, and T. Auld. (2021). Ecology and conservation of a living fossil: Australia's Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis). EcoEvoRxiv. October 22. doi:10.32942/

Macphail, Mike, Carpenter, Raymond J., Iglesias, Ari and Wilf, Peter. (2013). First Evidence for Wollemi Pine-type Pollen (Dilwynites: Araucariaceae) in South America. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69281.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. (2006). Critical Habitat determination for the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) Araucariaceae - A determination under Part 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (1998). Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) Recovery Plan. NPWS, Sydney.

Pastoriza-Piñol, J. (2007). Wollemia nobilis Araucariaceae. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 24: 217-229.

Peakall, R., Ebert, D., Scott, L., Meagher, P. and Offord, C. (2003). Comparative genetic study confirms exceptionally low genetic variation in the ancient and endangered relictual conifer, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). Molecular Ecology 12: 2331-2343.

POWO. (2023). Wollemia nobilis W.G.Jones, K.D.Hill & J.M.Allen. Plants of the World Online (online resource). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. Available at: [Accessed 14 October 2023]

Puno, V. I., M. H. Laurence, D. I. Guest and E. C. Y. Liew. 2015. Detection of Phytophthora multivora in the Wollemi Pine site and pathogenicity to Wollemia nobilis. Australian Plant Pathology, DOI 10.1007/s13313-014-0344-1

Salleh, Anna. (2005). Wollemi pine infected by fungus. ABC Science Online.

Slippers, B., Summerell, B. A., Crous, P. W., Coutinho, T. A., Wingfield, B. D. and Wingfield, M. J. (2005). Preliminary studies on Botryosphaeria species from southern hemisphere conifers in Australasia and South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology 34: 213-220. doi:10.1071/AP05020

Thomas, P. (2011). Wollemia nobilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T34926A9898196. Accessed on 17 October 2023.

Woodford, James. (2000). The Wollemi Pine: The Incredible Discovery of a Living Fossil From the Age of the Dinosaurs. Australia. Text Publishing.

Yap, Jia-Yee S., Rohner, Thore, Greenfield, Abigail, Van Der Merwe, Marlien, McPherson, Hannah, Glenn, Wendy, Kornfeld, Geoff, Marendy, Elessa, Pan, Annie Y. H., Wilton, Alan, Wilkins, Marc R., Rossetto, Maurizio and Delaney, Sven K. (2015). Complete chloroplast genome of the Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis): structure and evolution. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0128126.


<< Back to the Pinophyta (Conifers) database