Picea critchfieldii Jackson & Weng (1999:13847)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct (Jackson & Weng, 1999; Mander et al., 2014)

Last record: 12,430 yr B.P. (Givens & Givens, 1987)



Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi & Tennessee, southeastern USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Jackson, Stephen T. and Weng, Chengyu. (1999). Late Quaternary extinction of a tree species in eastern North America. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96(24): 13847-13852.


Other references:

C A Brown Louisiana Geol Surv Bull 12, 59–96 (1938).

H E Cofer, J P Manker U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep., 83–580. (1983).

W B Critchfield Proceedings of Eighth North American Forest Biology Workshop, ed R M Lanner (Utah State Univ., Logan), pp. 70–118 (1984).

P A Delcourt, H R Delcourt Eng Geol 45, 219–242 (1996).

Delcourt, Paul A., Delcourt, Hazel R., Brister, Ronald C. and Lackey, Laurence E. (1980). Quaternary vegetation history of the Mississippi embayment. Quaternary Research 13(1): 111-132.

Givens, Charles R. and Givens, Florence Montgomery. (1987). Age and significance of fossil white spruce (Picea glauca), Tunica Hills, Louisiana-Mississippi. Quaternary Research 27(3): 283-296.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Jackson, Stephen T. and Givens, Charles R. (1994). Late Wisconsinan Vegetation and Environment of the Tunica Hills Region, Louisiana/Mississippi. Quaternary Research 41(3): 316-325.

Jackson, Stephen T. and Overpeck, Jonathan T. (2000). Responses of plant populations and communities to environmental changes of the late Quaternary, pp. 194-220. In: Erwin, Douglas H. and Wing, Scott L. (eds.). Deep Time: Paleobiology’s Perspective. Lawrence, Kansas: The Paleobiological Society.

Jackson, Stephen T., Webb, Robert S., Anderson, Katharine H., Overpeck, Jonathan T., Webb III, Thompson, Williams, John W. and Hansen, Barbara C. S. (2000). Vegetation and environment in Eastern North America during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 19(6): 489-508.

Mander, L. et al. (2014). Identifying the pollen of an extinct spruce species in the Late Quaternary sediments of the Tunica Hills region, south-eastern United States. Journal of Quaternary Science 29(7): 711-721.

Watts, W. A. (1983). Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States, Vol. 1, The Late Pleistocene, pp. 294-310. In: Porter, S. C. (ed.). Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press.

Whitehead, D. R. (1965). The Quaternary of the United States, pp. 417-432. In: Wright, H. E. and Frey, D. G. (eds.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.


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