Scolymia cubensis (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849)

Artichoke coral



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonyms: Caryophillia cubensis Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (basionym); Lithophyllia cubensis (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849); Mussa cubensis (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849); Scolymia lacera lacera f. cubensis (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849)


Conservation Status

Last record: 1849 or before (Lang, 1971:954)

Rediscovered in 1971 or before (Lang, 1971:954)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Caribbean & western Atlantic


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Milne Edwards, H. and Haime, J. (1849). Recherches sur les polypiers. Mémoire 4. Monographie des Astréides (1) (suite). Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Series 3. 12, 3, 95-197.


Other references:

Aronson, R., Bruckner, A., Moore, J., Precht, B. and Weil, E. (2008). Scolymia cubensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T133053A3582924. Downloaded on 18 May 2016.

Britton, J. C. and Morton, B. (1989). Shore ecology of the Gulf of Mexico : i-viii, 1-387.

Brüggemann, F. (1877). Notes on the stony corals in the collection of the British Museum. III. A revision of the Recent solitary Mussaceae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4. 20: 300-313.

Budd, A. F., Woodell, J. D., Huang, D. and Klaus, J. S. (2019). Evolution of the Caribbean subfamily Mussinae (Anthozoa: Scleractinia: Faviidae): transitions between solitary and colonial forms. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 17(18): 1581-1616.

Cairns, S. D. (1982). Stony corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa, Scleractinia) of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Smithsonian Contribution to the Marine Sciences. 12:271-302.

Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock, and D.M. Opresko. (2002). Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 28, Bethesda, Maryland. 115 pp.

Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., Brinckman-Voss, A., Castro, C.B., Pugh, P.R., Cutress, C.E., Jaap, W.C., Fautin, D.G., Larson, R.J., Harbison, G.R., Arai, M.N. and Opresko, D.M. 1991. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 22, Bethesda, Maryland. 75 pp.

Cairns, S. D., Hoeksema, B. W. and van der Land, J. (1999). Appendix: List of extant stony corals. Atoll Research Bulletin 459: 13-46.

Cairns, S. D., Jaap, W. C. and Lang, J. C. (2009). Scleractinia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, pp. 333-347. In: Felder, D. L. and Camp, D. K. (eds.). Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.

Cortès, J. and Guzmán, H. (1985). Organismos de los arrecifes coralinos de Costa Rica III. Descripcion y distribucion geografica de corales escleractinios (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia) de la Costa Caribe. Brenesia. 24: 63-123.

Crabbe, J. and Kitahara, M. V. (2022). Scolymia cubensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T133053A165696681. Accessed on 24 February 2024.

den Hartog, J. C. (1980). Caribbean Shallow Water Corallimorpharia. Zoologische Verhandelingen, (176): 83 pp.

Fenner, D. P. (1993). Species distinctions among several Caribbean stony corals. Bulletin of Marine Science 53: 1099-1116.

Guzman, H. M. (1998). Diversity of stony, soft and black corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Antipatharia; Hydrozoa: Milleporina) at Cayos Cochinos, Bay Islands, Honduras. Rev. Biol. Trop. 46 Suppl. 4: 75-80.

Hoeksema, B. W. and Cairns, S. (2024). World List of Scleractinia. Scolymia cubensis (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-02-24

Kühlmann, D. H. H. (2006). Die Steinkorallensammlung im Naturhistorischen Museum in Rudolstadt (Thüringen) nebst ökologischen Bemerkungen. Rudolstädter Naturhistorische Schriften, 13, 37-113

Lang, Judith C. (1971). Interspecific aggression by scleractinian corals. 1. The rediscovery of Scolymia cubensis (Milne Edwards and Haime). Bulletin of Marine Science 21(4): 952-959.

NatureServe. (2024). Accessed 4 June 2024.

Neves, E., Johnsson, R., Sampaio, C. and Pichon, M. (2006). The occurrence of Scolymia cubensis in Brazil: revising the problem of the Caribbean solitary mussids. Zootaxa 1366(1): 45-54.

Reed, J. K. (1985). Deepest distribution of Atlantic hermatypic corals discovered in the Bahamas. Fifth International Coral Reef Congress 6: 249-254 [251-252].

Reyes, J., Santodomingo, N. and Flórez, P. (2010). Corales Escleractinios de Colombia. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (INVEMAR), Santa Marta, Colombia. pp 1-246.

Sterrer, W. (1986). Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda: a systematic guide to the identification of marine organisms. Wiley-Interscience Publication. Wiley. 742 pp (Nemertini part).

Veron, J. E. N. (2000). Corals of the World, Volume III: Families Mussidae, Faviidae, Trachyphylliidae, Poritidae. Australian Institute of Marine Science. Townsville. 490 pp.

Zlatarski, V. N. and Estalella, N. M. (1980). Scleractinia of Cuba with data on the constituent organisms [in Bulgarian]. Bulgarian Academy of Science. Sophia. 312 pp.


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