Millepora boschmai De Weerdt & Glynn, 1991

Boschmai's fire coral



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 1997 or 1998.

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)


Originally known only from Panama, individuals collected from Indonesia were identified by (Razak & Hoeksema, 2003). However, there are no known living individuals of this species, although they presumably exist given the recent collections from Indonesia. But until such time as living individuals are tracked down this species shall remain "missing, possibly extinct".



Gulf of Chiriquí, Panama


Biology & Ecology




Holotype: RMNH Coel. 14771

Type locality: "Uva Island, Contreras Islands, Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama, 2-3 m".



RMNH Coel. 14772
USNM 88321
ZMA Coel. 8449
STRI (no catalogue number)
USNM 88343-47, 88350-52, 88355
ZMA Coel. 8450-52
R M NH Coel. 17985
Z MA Coel. 8453






Original scientific description:

De Weerdt, W. H. and Glynn, P. W. (1991). A new and presumably now extinct species of Millepora (Hydrozoa) in the eastern Pacific. Zool. Meded., Leiden 65 15: 267-276. [269-270]


Other references:

del Monte-Luna, P, Lluch-Belda, D, Serviere-Zaragoza, E, Carmona, R, Reyes-Bonilla, H, Aurioles-Gamboa, D, Castro-Aguirre, JL, del Próo SA, G, Trujillo-Millán, O and Brook, BW (2007) Marine extinctions revisited. Fish and Fisheries 8(2), 107–122.

del Monte-Luna, Pablo et al. (2023). A review of recent and future marine extinctions. Cambridge Prisms: Extinction 1: e13.

Glynn, Peter W. (1972). Observations on the ecology of the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama: 13-30. In: M. L. Jones (ed.). The Panamic biota: some observations prior to a sea level canal. Bull. Biol. Soc. Wash. 2.

Glynn, Peter W. and Feingold, J. S. (1992). Hydrocoral species not extinct. Science 257: 1845.

Glynn, PW, Maté, JL, Baker, AC and Calderón, MO (2001) Coral bleaching and mortality in Panama and Ecuador during the 1997–1998 El Niño–Southern oscillation event: Spatial/temporal patterns and comparisons with the 1982–1983 event. Bulletin of Marine Science 69(1), 79–109.

Glynn PW, de Weerdt WH. 1991. Elimination of two reef-building hydrocorals following the 1982–83 El Nino warming event. Science 253:69–71.

Guzmán, H. and Edgar, G. (2008). Millepora boschmai. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. ( Downloaded on 20 December 2010.

Guzmán, H. & Edgar, G. 2008. Millepora boschmai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T133300A3678127. Accessed on 09 July 2022.

Razak, T. B. and Hoeksema B. W. (2003). The hydrocoral genus Millepora (Hydrozoa: Capitata: Milleporidae) in Indonesia. Zool. Verh. Leiden 345: 313-336.

Schuchert, P. (2011). Millepora boschmai de Weerdt & Glynn, 1991. In: Schuchert, P. World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2011-09-12

De Weerdt, W. H. and Glynn, P. W. (1991). A new and presumably now extinct species of Millepora (Hydrozoa) in the eastern Pacific. Zool. Meded., Leiden 65 15: 267-276.


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