Edwardsia ivelli Manuel, 1975:705

Ivell's sea anenome, Ivell's sea-anemone



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Named after Professor Richard Ivell (Manuel, 1975:710).


Conservation Status

Missing (Macadam, 2022)

Last record: 1983 (Macadam, 2022)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)


Distribution & Habitat

Widewater Lagoon, West Sussex, England


Widewater Lagoon is brackish and is separated from the marine environment by a manmade shingle (ridge) beach, with a layer of impervious clay preventing sea water seepage (Manuel, 1975:705). The salt content of the lagoon varies considerably from winter to summer, making the species euryhaline (i.e. able to handle significant changes in salt content) (Manuel, 1975:705). As most if not all other Edwardsia are marine species, and it is known to withstand considerable changes in salt levels, it is a distinct possibility that it occurs in the wider marine environment of West Sussex or elsewhere in England.


Biology & Ecology

The salt content of the lagoon varies considerably from winter to summer, making the species euryhaline (i.e. able to handle significant changes in salt content) (Manuel, 1975:705). 



Holotype: OUM 12028 (Manuel, 1975:709)

Paratypes: OUM 12029 (n=2) (Manuel, 1975:709)






Original scientific description:

Manuel, Richard L. (1975). A new sea-anemone from a brackish lagoon in Sussex, Edwardsia ivelli, sp. nov. Journal of Natural History 9(6): 705-711.


Other references:

Bamber, R. N. (1997). Assessment of Saline Lagoons within Special Areas of Conservation. English Nature Research Report No. 235. English Nature, Peterborough.

Barnes, R. S. K. (1994). The Brackish-Water Fauna of Northwestern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. 287 pp.

Carlton, James T., Geller, J. B., Reaka-Kudla, M. L. and Norse, E. A. (1999). Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 525-538.

del Monte-Luna, P., Lluch-Belda, D., Serviere-Zaragoza, E., Carmona, R., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Castro-Aguirre, J. L., del Próo, S. A. G., Trujillo-Millán, O. and Brook, B. W. (2007). Marine extinctions revisited. Fish and Fisheries 8(2): 107-122.

del Monte-Luna, Pablo et al. (2023). A review of recent and future marine extinctions. Cambridge Prisms: Extinction 1: e13.

Dulvy, N. K., Sadovy, Y. and Reynolds, J. D. (2003). Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries 4(1): 25-64.

England, K. W. (1987). Certain Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from the Red Sea and tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 53(4): 205-292.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Macadam, C. (2022). Edwardsia ivelli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T7035A200286264. Accessed on 02 February 2024.

Manuel, R. L. (1981a). On the identity of the sea anemone Scolanthus callimorphus Gosse, 1853 (Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae). Journal of Natural History 15: 265-276

Manuel, R. L. (1981b). British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press. 241 pp. (Synopses of the British Fauna). [p. 200]

Rodríguez, E., Fautin, D and Daly, M. (2024). World List of Actiniaria. Edwardsia ivelli Manuel, 1975. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-02-01

van der Land, J. and den Hartog, J. H. (2001). Actiniaria, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (ed.). (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 106-109.

Williams, R. B. (1981). A sea anemone, Edwardsia meridionalis sp. nov., from Antarctica and a preliminary revision of the genus Edwardsia De Quatrefages, 1841 (Coelenterata: Actiniaria). Records of the Australian Museum (Sydney), 33(6): 325-360.

Williams, R. B. (1987). The current status of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in England. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist's Society 27(5): 371-374.

Williams, R. B. (2003). Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones. Zoologische Verhandelingen 345: 437-484.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (1996). Edwardsia ivelli. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. ( Downloaded on 19 April 2011.


<< Back to the Cnidaria database