Ciconia maltha Miller, 1910

La Brea stork, Asphalt stork, Cigüeña de La Brea



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Invalid according to (Orihuela, 2019), but seemingly treated as valid by (Suárez, 2022).


Conservation Status

Extinct or invalid (synonym)

Last record: Late Pleistocene



California, USA & Cuba


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Miller, L. (1910). The condor-like vultures of Rancho La Brea. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Depart. Geol. 6: 1-19. 


Other references:

Agnolin, F. (2006) Presencia de Ciconia maltha (Aves, Ciconiidae) en el Pleistoceno Inferior-Medio del Valle de Tarija, Bolivia. Revista Española Paleontología 21(1): 39-41. [In Spanish]

Emslie, Steven D. (1998). Avian community, climate, and sea-level changes in the Plio-Pleistocene of the Florida Peninsula. Ornithological Monographs, No. 50: iii + 113 pp.

Feduccia, A. 1967. Ciconia maltha and Grus americana from the upper Pliocene of Idaho. Wilson Bulletin 79:316-318.

Feduccia, A. 1973. Fossil birds from the Late Pleistocene Ingleside Fauna, San Patricio County, Texas. Condor 75:243-244.

Guthrie, D. A. (2009). An updated catalogue of the birds from the Carpinteria Asphalt, Pleistocene of California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 108(2): 52-62.

Howard, Hildegarde. (1955). Fossil birds from Manix Lake, California. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 264-J: 199-205.

Jefferson, G. T. (1991). A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California. Part one; nonmarine lower vertebrate and avian taxa. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports 5: 1-60.

Orihuela, Johanset. (2019). An annotated list of late Quaternary extinct birds of Cuba. Ornitología Neotropical 30: 57-67.

Stock, Chester and Harris, J. M. (1992). Rancho la Brea: A record of Pleistocene life in California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series no. 37, 7th ed.:i-xiv + 1-113.

Suárez, William. (2022). Catalogue of Cuban fossil and subfossil birds. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 142(1): 10-74.

Suárez, William and Olson, Storrs L. (2003). New records of storks (Ciconiidae) from Quaternary asphalt deposits in Cuba. The Condor 105: 150-154.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.


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