Pteropus loochoensis Gray, 1870:106

Okinawa flying fox, Japanese flying fox, Greater loochoo fruit bat



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Pteropus mariannus loochoensis Gray, 1870:106; keraudreni Fritze, 1894; loochooensis Fritze, 1894; luchuensis Seitz, 1892


Demonstrated to be a synonym of Pteropus mariannus by (Almeida et al. 2014).


Conservation Status

Invalid (synonym)

Last record: 1870 or before (1800's?); 1894 (Martin et al., 2023)

IUCN RedList status: Data Deficient



Okinawa (=Nansei-Shoto), Japan?


Biology & Ecology




Two specimens are in the British Museum of Natural History. A third specimen was collected, but it's current whereabouts are unknown (Maeda, 2008).






Original scientific description:

Gray, J. E. (1870). Catalogue of monkeys, lemurs and fruit eating bats in the collections of the British Museum. London: British Museum. 137 pp.


Other references:

Abe, H., Ishii, N., Ito, T., Kaneko, Y., Maeda, K., Miura, S. and Yoneda, M. 2005. A Guide to the Mammals of Japan. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, Japan.

Almeida, Francisca C. et al. (2014). Each flying fox on its own branch: A phylogenetic tree for Pteropus and related genera (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 77: 83-95.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (compilers and editors). (1996). 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Corbet, G. B. and Hill, J. E. (1980). A world list of mammalian species. British Museum (Natural History), London. 226 pp.

Flannery, Timothy F. (1995). Mammals of the South-west Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, NY, 464 pp.

Groombridge, B. (ed.). (1994). 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hilton-Taylor, C. (ed.). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Imaizumi, Y., 1970. The handbook of Japanese land mammals. Vol.
1. Tokyo: Shin-Shicho-Sha Co.

Koopman, K. F. (1993). Order Chiroptera, pp. 137-241. In: Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Kuroda, N. (1932). A list of the Japanese mammals. Tokyo: L.M. Zoological Society Japan.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and Flemming, C. 1999. Requiem Aeternam. The last five hundred years of mammalian extinctions. In: R. D. E. MacPhee (ed.), Extinctions in Near Time, pp. 333-371. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA.

Maeda, K. (2008). Pteropus loochoensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 19 October 2011.

Martin, Thomas E., Bennett, Gareth C., Fairbairn, Andrew J. and Mooers, A. Ø. (2023). ‘Lost’ taxa and their conservation implications. Animal Conservation 26(1): 14-24. [Appendix S2 (1617 taxa not seen >10 years); Appendix S3 (562 taxa not seen >50 years)]

Mickleburgh, Simon P., Hutson, Anthony M. and Racey, Paul A. (1992). Old World fruit bats. An action plan for their conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. viii + 252 pp.

Ministry of the Environment. 2007. The revised Japanese Red List.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.

Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Yoshiyuki, M. (1989). A systematic study of the Japanese Chiroptera. Tokyo: National Science Museum. 242 pp.


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