Natalus primus Anthony, 1919:642

Cuban greater funnel-eared bat, Cuban yellow bat



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Natalus stramineus primus (Anthony, 1919:642); Natalus major primus (Anthony, 1919:642)


Conservation Status

Last record: subfossil

Rediscovered in 1991


IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Isle of Pines, Cuba


Originally described by (Anthony, 1919) based upon fossil remains, it was found alive in 1991 or 1992 in a single cave to which it is still restricted (Tejedor et al., 2004).


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Anthony, H. E. (1919). Mammals collected in eastern Cuba in 1917. With descriptions of two new species. Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 41: 625-643.


Other references:

Baillie, Jonathan E. M. and Butcher, Ellen R. (2012). Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. London, UK: Zoological Society of London.

Borroto-Páez, Rafael and Mancina, Carlos A. (2017). Biodiversity and conservation of Cuban mammals: past, present, and invasive species. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 964-985.

Cooke, Siobhán B., Dávalos, Liliana M., Mychajliw, Alexis M. Turvey, Samuel T. and Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Anthropogenic Extinction Dominates Holocene Declines of West Indian Mammals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 48: 301-327.

Dávalos, L. M. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Funnel-eared bats (Chiroptera: Natalidae), with notes on biogeography and conservation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 37: 91-103.

Dávalos, L. and Mancina, C. (2008). Natalus primus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 26 July 2013.

Dávalos, L., & Mancina, C. (2010). Natalus primus. Gland, VD: IUCN.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

De la Cruz, J. M. and García, L. Y. (2019). Aplicación de métodos no invasivos y convencionales en el estudio ecológico de Natalus primus. ECOVIDA 9, 1: 24-38.

De la Cruz, J. M. et al. (2019). Supporting the Funnel-Eared Bat (Natalus primus) one of the most endangered species in Cuba. An output from the EDGE of Existence fellowship, Zoological Society of London and Segré Fondation.

De la Cruz, J.M., C.A. Mancina, D. Teles and C. Grey. In Press. Estimación del número de ejemplares en la última población de Natalus primus (Chiroptera: Natalidae) en el Parque Nacional Guanahacabibes 

Goodwin, G. G. (1959). Bats of the subgenus Natalus. American Museum Novitates 1977: 1-22.

Goodwin, Harry A. and Goodwin, J. M. (1973). List of mammals which have become extinct or are possibly extinct since 1600. Int. Union Conserv. Nat. Occas. Pap. 8: 1-20.

Mancina, C. A., L. Echenique, A. Tejedor, L. García, A. Daniel and M. Ortega. 2007. Endemics under threat: An assessment of the conservation status of Cuban bats. Hystrix, Italian Journal of Mammalogy 18: 3-15.

Morgan, G. S. 1989. Fossil Chiroptera and Rodentia from the Bahamas, and the historical biogeography of the Bahamian mammal fauna. Pp. 685-740, in Biogeography of the West Indies: Past, present, and future (C. A. Woods, ed.). Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida, 878 pp.

Morgan, G. S., and N. J. Czaplewski. 2003. A new bat (Chiroptera: Natalidae) from the early Miocene of Florida, with comments on natalid phylogeny. Journal of Mammalogy, 84:729-752.

Sanchez, Lida, Moreno, Christian R. and Mora, Emanuel C. (2017). Echolocation calls of Natalus primus (Chiroptera: Natalidae): Implications for conservation monitoring of this species. Cogent Biology 3: 1355027.

Scheffers, Brett R., Yong, Ding Li, Harris, J. Berton C., Giam, Xingli and Sodhi, Navjot S. (2011). The world’s rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7): e22531. [Supporting Information (Table S1)]

Silva-Taboada, G. (1979). Murciélagos de Cuba. La Habana: Editorial Academia.

Simmons, N.B. and A.L. Cirranello. 2023. Bat Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic database. Version 1.3. Accessed on 06/18/2023.

Soto-Centeno, J. Angel and Steadman, David W. (2015). Fossils reject climate change as the cause of extinction of Caribbean bats. Scientific Reports 5(7971): 1-7.

Tejedor, A., Silva-Taboada, G. and Rodríguez-Hernández, D. (2004). Discovery of extant Natalus major (Chiroptera: Natalidae) in Cuba. Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 69: 153-162.

Tejedor, A., Tavares, V. C. and Silva-Taboada, G. (2005). A Revision of Extant Greater Antillean Bats of the Genus Natalus. American Museum Novitates 3493: 1-22, 7 figs., 2 tbls.

Tejedor, A.; V. Tavares; G. Silva-Taboada and D. Rodriguez. (2002). Discovery of Extant Natalus major (Chiroptera: Natalidae) in Cuba, with Comments on Taxonomy, Natural History and Extinction of West Indies Bats. Bat Research News 2002: 187.

Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Past and present of insular Caribbean mammals: understanding Holocene extinctions to inform modern biodiversity conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 913-917.


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