Aproteles bulmerae Menzies, 1977:331

Bulmer's fruit bat



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record: c. 7,000 BC

Rediscovered in 1975 (Hyndman & Menzies, 1980)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



New Guinea


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Menzies, J. I. (1977). Fossil and subfossil fruit bats from the mountains of New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 25(2): 329-336. [Abstract]


Other references:

Almeida, F. C., Simmons, N. B., and Giannini, N. P. (2020). A species-level phylogeny of old world fruit bats with a new higher-level classification of the family Pteropodidae. Am. Mus. Novit. 2020, 1–24. doi: 10.1206/3950.1

Baillie, Jonathan E. M. and Butcher, Ellen R. (2012). Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. London, UK: Zoological Society of London.

Bonaccorso, F. J. (1998). Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series, Conservation International, Washington, D.C., 489 pp.

Bulmer, Susan. (1979). Archaeological Evidence of Prehistoric Faunal Change in Highland Papua New Guinea. Unpublished paper to Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science Congress, Section 25A. Auckland.

Fisher, Diana O. (2011a). Trajectories from extinction: where are missing mammals rediscovered? Global Ecology & Biogeography 20: 415-425. [Appendix S1]

Flannery, Timothy F. (1990). Mammals of New Guinea. The Australian Museum. Robert Brown and Associates, Queensland, Australia.

Flannery, Timothy F. (1994). The Rediscovery of Bulmer's Fruit Bat. BATS Magazine 12(1): [pagination?].

Flannery, Timothy F. (1995). Mammals of New Guinea. Revised and updated edition. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, NY, 568 pp.

Flannery, Timothy F. and Seri, L. (1993). Rediscovery of Aproteles bulmerae (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Morphology, ecology and conservation. Mammalia 57(1): 19-25. [Abstract]

Hutson, T., Helgen, K., Flannery, T. & Wright, D. (2008). Aproteles bulmerae. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 18 February 2013.

Hyndman, D. and Menzies, J. I. (1980). Aproteles bulmerae (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) of New Guinea is not extinct. Journal of Mammalogy 61: 159-160.

Mickleburgh, Simon P., Hutson, Anthony M. and Racey, Paul A. (1992). Old World fruit bats. An action plan for their conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. viii + 252 pp.

Simmons, N.B. and A.L. Cirranello. 2023. Bat Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic database. Version 1.3. Accessed on 06/18/2023.

Simpson, George Gaylord. (1984). Mammals and cryptozoology. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 128(1): 1-19.

Sutton, Alice, Mountain, Mary-Jane, Aplin, Ken, Bulmer, Susan and Denham, Tim. (2009). Archaeozoological records for the highlands of New Guinea: a review of current evidence. Australian Archaeology 69: 41-58.

Vargas, Pablo. (2023). Exploring ‘endangered living fossils’ (ELFs) among monotypic genera of plants and animals of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 11: 1100503.

Wright, D. D., Mack, A. L., Paxton, E. H. and Menzies, J. J. (1995). Recent Aproteles bulmerae (Megachiroptera: Ptreopodidae) Bones found in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Mammalia 1995: 163-164.


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