Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934:1
Guam fruit bat, Guam flying(-)fox, Little Marianas fruit bat, Tokuda's fruit bat, Tokuda's flying fox, Fanihi (local Chamorro name)
Taxonomy & Nomenclature
Last record: March 1967 (Perez, 1973) or 5 June 1968 (Wiles, 1987:154) (collection); 1968 (Bonaccorso et al., 2020); 1974 (Wiles, 1987; Fisher & Blomberg, 2012; Lee et al., 2017); 1979 (Flannery, 1995:293 (citing Wiles, 1987)) or late 1970's (Bonaccorso et al., 2020) (possible sighting)
IUCN RedList status: Extinct
Two specimens, both males (one adult, one age unknown) were collected by W. F. Coultas on 10 August, 1931. These are the only known specimens collected prior to the species' description. A third specimen (a female) was shot and killed by hunters (an accompanying large juvenile managed to escape) either in March 1967 (Perez, 1973) or on 5 June 1968 (Wiles, 1987:154). An unconfirmed report from 1974 exists (Wiles, 1987).
Guam, Marianas Islands (=Marianne Islands) (southern), USA
Holotype: AMNH 87117 (adult male, skin and skull) (Buden et al. 2013)
Type locality: Guam
AMNH 87118 (male (age unknown), skin and skull) (Buden et al. 2013)
AMNH 256558 (skull only) (Buden et al. 2013, see Notes)
Original scientific description:
Tate, George Henry Hamilton. (1934). Bats from the Pacific Islands, including a new fruit bat from Guam. American Museum Novitates 713: 1-3.
Almeida, Francisca C. et al. (2014). Each flying fox on its own branch: A phylogenetic tree for [i]Pteropus[/i] and related genera (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 77: 83-95.
Baker, R. H. (1948). Comments on conservation problems in Micronesia, p. 53-55. In H. J. Coolidge (ed.). Conservation in Micronesia. National Research Council, Washington, D. C. 70 p.
Bonaccorso, F., Helgen, K., Allison, A. & Wiles, G. (2008). Pteropus tokudae. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 19 October 2011.
Bonaccorso, F.J., Helgen, K., Allison, A. & Wiles, G. 2020. Pteropus tokudae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T18763A22088402. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18763A22088402.en. Downloaded on 26 June 2021.
Buden, D. W., Helgen, K. M. and Wiles, G. J. (2013). Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands. ZooKeys 345: 97-135.
Fisher, Diana O. and Blomberg, Simon P. (2012). Inferring Extinction of Mammals from Sighting Records, Threats, and Biological Traits. Conservation Biology 26(1): 57-67. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01797.x
Flannery, Timothy F. (1995). Mammals of the South-west Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, NY, 464 pp. [p. 293]
Jones, K. E. et al. (2009). PanTHERIA: A species-level database of life-history, ecology and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals. Ecology 90: 2648.
Lee, T. E., Fisher, D. O., Blomberg, S. P. and Wintle, B. A. (2017). Extinct or still out there? Disentangling influences on extinction and rediscovery helps to clarify the fate of species on the edge. Global Change Biology 23(2): 621-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13421
Mickleburgh, Simon P., Hutson, Anthony M. and Racey, Paul A. (1992). Old World fruit bats. An action plan for their conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. viii + 252 pp.
Perez, Gerald S. A. (1972). Observations on Guam bats. Micronesica [b]8[/b]: 141-149.
Perez, Gerald S. A. (1973). Notes on the ecology and life history of Pteropodidae on Guam. Periodicum Biologorum 75: 163-168.
Suckling, Kieran, Slack, Rhiwena and Nowicki, Brian. (2004). Extinct and the Endangered Species Act. Centre For Biological Diversity. 63 pp.
Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.
Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0020 [Supplementary Information]
USFWS. 1990. Guam Mariana Fruit Bat and Little Mariana Fruit Bat Recovery Plan. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.
Wiles, Gary J. (1987a). Current research and future management of Marianas fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Guam. Australian Mammalogy 10: 93-95.
Wiles, Gary J. (1987b). The status of fruit bats on Guam. Pacific Science [b]41[/b](1-4): 148-157.
Wiles, Gary J. (1990). Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat and Little Mariana Fruit Bat. USFWS.
Wiles, G.J., and N.H. Payne, 1986. The trade in fruit bats, Pteropus spp. on Guam and other Pacific islands. Biol. Cons. 38: 143-161. [relevant citation?]
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University Press.