Vanellus macropterus Wagler, 1827:77

Javanese wattled lapwing, Javanese lapwing, Javan lapwing, Sunda plover



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Vanellus tricolor Horsfield, 1821:186; Rogibyx tricolor Mathews, 1913:41; Charadrius macropterus Wagler, 1827:77


Conservation Status


Last record: 1939; June 1940 (Butchart, 2005:44)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)


Unconfirmed reports of the Javan(ese) Lapwing from Sumatra and Timor, as well as from Java, may indicate that the species persists. However, given that its historical range was always confined to Java, the last of which was in 1940, these reports must be viewed with much skepticism. However, the possibility of falling for the Romeo Error should be motivation enough to take these reports seriously and to consider expanding the target area of any future expeditions to rediscover the species.



Java, Indonesia


Biology & Ecology




"The collection of the Javan Wattled Lapwing in the Leiden Museum is the largest in the world. The four mounted specimens, 35 skins, two skeletons and 15 eggs give a good picture of this species. Most specimens were collected by Max Bartels who, with the help of his hunters, collected 28 lapwings between 1907 and 1925."







Original scientific description:

Wagler, J. G. (1827). Systema avium. Stuttgartiae: Cottæ.


Other references:

BirdLife International. (2001). Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLifeInternational Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

BirdLife International. (2012). Vanellus macropterus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 08 July 2012.

BirdLife International. (2014). Species factsheet: Vanellus macropterus. Downloaded from on 26/11/2014.

Bock, W. J. (1958). A generic review of the plovers (Charadriinae, Aves). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 118: 27-97.

Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J.; Crosby, M. J. & Tobias, J. A. (2005). Asian enigmas: "Lost" and poorly known birds: targets for birders in Asia. Birding Asia 3: 41-49.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Stattersfield, A. J. and Brooks, T. M. (2006). Going or gone: defining ‘Possibly Extinct’ species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126A: 7-24.

Butchart, Stuart H. M. et al. (2018). Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18. [Abstract]

Collar, N. J. et al. (2001). Threatened birds of Asia: the Birdlife International Red Data Book. Third edition, part 3. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International.

N J Collar, J P. W Schariemann, C T Fisher. (2000). Max E. G. Bartels and the Javan Lapwing Vanellus macropterus. Kukila 11: 122-124. [Abstract]

Collar, Nigel J. and Sykes, Brian R. (2009). Lost, found and saved—OBC conservation: the next 25 years. BirdingASIA 11: 41-46.

Fisher, Clemency T. and Warr, F. E. (2003). Museums on paper: library & manuscript resources. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 123A: 136-164.

Horsfield, T. (1821). Systematic arrangement and description of birds from the Island of Java. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 1(13): 133-200.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Iqbal, M., Lestiyanto, T., Wibowo, W.K., Taufiqurrahman, I. and Nazar, L. (2013). In search of the Javanese Lapwing [i]Vanellus macropterus[/i] 2001-2012. BirdingASIA 19: 68-72.

Jansen, Justin J. F. (2015). The bird collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France: the first years (1793-1825). Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 184(5): 81-111.

King, W. B. (1981). Red Data Book. International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources, Morges, Switzerland, volume 2 (Aves).

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292.

Mathews, G. M. (1913). New species and subspecies of Australian birds. Austral Avian Record 2(4): 73-79.

Noni, F. & Londo, I. (2006) Javanese Lapwing expedition. Tattler 3: 7.

Nurwatha, P. F. & Rahman, Z. (2002). Laporan survei keberadaan TrulekJawa. Yayasan Pribumi Alam Lestari, Bandung. Unpublished report.

Purnama, S. (2010) Javanese Lapwing surveys at Muara Gembong, Bekasi,West Java, Indonesia–an expedition to find Java’s extinct bird. Report to Oriental Bird Club. Unpublished. [Summary in BirdingASIA16: 6–7.]

Purnama, S. (2012) Javan Lapwing Vanellus macropterus (Wagler,1827) wet-season survey in Muara Gembong, West Java. Report to OrientalBird Club. Unpublished. [Summary in BirdingASIA 18: 8.]

Sutrisno, E. (2003) Search for Javanese Lapwing Vanellus macropterus.Biodiversity Conservation Indonesia/RSPB, Bogor. Unpublishedreport.

Tamrin, Z., Lestiyanto, T., Hardianto, N., Nandika, D. & Herna (2003) Surveikeberadaan Trulek Jawa Vanellus macropterus di Bekasi, Jawa Barat.Unpublished report. 

van Balen, S. and Nijman, V. (2007). New information on the Critically Endangered Javanese Lapwing Vanellus macropterus, based mainly on unpublished notes by August Spennemann (c.1878-1945). Bird Conservation International 17(3): 225-234.

van Balen, B., Kristanto, A., Rai, M. D., Suciraharjo, I. R., Rahma, E. R. &Valentine. (2006) Survey of the endemic avifauna of the Javan coastalzone Endemic Bird Area November–December 2006. Reportprepared for Van Tienhovenstichting, Vogelbescherming Nederlandand Burung Indonesia (unpublished).


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