Pinguinus impennis Linnaeus, 1758:130

Great auk

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Alca impennis Linnaeus, 1758:130; Plautus impennis Brunnich, 1772; Alca borealis Forster, 1817; Penguin impennis Linnaeus, 1758:130 (orthographic error; used by Figueiredo et al., 2018)

 

Conservation Status

Last Record: 1830 or 1844; 1852 (BirdLife International, 2016)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct

 

Distribution

Atlantic Ocean

 

Biology

 

 

Hypodigm

RMNH 110.104 (adult)

 

Media

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Linnaeus, Carolus. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius).

 

Other references:

Agassiz, Louis. (1864). A perfect specimen of a mummyfied Alca impennis. Rep. Mus. Comp. Zool. [1864]: 16-22.

Allen, J. A. (1876). On the extinction of the Great Auk at the Funk Islands. American Naturalist 10: 48. [p. 618?]

Altum, B. (1863). Der Brillenalk (Alca impennis). Natur u Offenbarung 9: 15-23.

Andrews, C. W. (1920). Remains of Great Auk and Ptarmigan in the Channel Islands. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 9th ser., 6(2): 166.

Anmarkrud, Jarl Andreas and Lifjeld, Jan T. (In Press, 2016). Complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven extinct or possibly extinct bird species. Molecular Ecology Resources. DOI: 10.1111/1755-0998.12600 [Abstract]

Arrigoni, E. (1914). Specimen of Alca impennis sold to a Russian at Moscow. Riv. Ital. Orn. Bologna 3: 1-3.

Author? (1987). Raiders of the Lost Auk. ISC Newsletter 6: 5-7.

Baer, K. E. (1863). Über das Aussterben der Tierarten in physiologischer und nicht physiologischer Hinsicht überhaupt u. s. w. II. Untergangene Tiere, deren Zusammensein mit dem Menschen historisch documentiert ist. β Alca impennis Linn. Melanges biol. 4: 399-490.

Baird, S. F. (1866). [old literature about P. impennis]. Ibis 1866: 223-224.

Baird, S. F. (1870). Specimens extant of the Great Auk. Harper's New Monthly Magazine XLI: 308.

Baldwin, S. (1873). The Great Auk. Yorkshire Nat. Recorder 1873: 165-166.

Baroarson, G. G. (1911). [Bones of Alca impennis at Hunafloi, North Iceland]. Vid. Medd. Naturh. For. Kjøbenhavn 1910: 73.

Barrett-Hamilton, G. E. (1896). The great auk as an Irish bird. Irish Nat. 5: 121-122.

Barrows, W. B. (1877). Catalogue of the Alcidae contained in the Museum of the Boston of Natural History with a Review and proposed Classification of the Family. Proced. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 19: 199-268.

Bate, D. M. A. (1928). The animal remains. In: Buxton, L. H. D., Smith, G. E. and Bate, D. M. A. Excavations of a Mousterian rock-shelter at Devil's Tower, Gibraltar. Journ. Roy. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain and Ireland 58: 92-110. [pp. 92-111?; remains of great auk at Gibraltar, pp. 107]

Bengtson, Sven-Axel. (1984). Breeding Ecology and Extinction of the Great  Auk  (Pinguinus impennis): Anectodal Evidence and Conjectures. The Auk 101(1): 1-12.

Best, J. and Mulville, J. (In Press, 2013). A bird in the hand: Data collation and novel analysis of avian remains from South Uist, Outer Hebrides. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. [Abstract] ["Over time there is a notable decrease in the presence of great auk (Pinguinus impennis)"]

BirdLife International. 2016. Pinguinus impennis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694856A93472944. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22694856A93472944.en. Downloaded on 27 June 2021.

Birkhead, T. R. (1993). Great Auk Islands: A Field Biologist in the Arctic. London: T & AD Poyser.

Birkhead, T. R. (1994). How collectors killed the Great Auk. New Scientist, 28th May.

Birkhead, Tim R. et al. (2020a). New insights from old eggs – the shape and thickness of Great Auk Pinguinus impennis eggs. Ibis. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12820 [Abstract]

Birkhead, Tim R. et al. (2020b). Restoration of two great auk (Pinguinus impennis) eggs: Bourman Labrey's egg and the Scarborough egg. Archives of Natural History 47(2): 392-401. [Abstract]

Blanc, G. A. (1927). Sulla presenea di Alca impennis Linn. nella formatione superiori di Grotta Romanelli in Terra d'Otranto. Arch. Antrop. Entthnol. (Firenze) 58: 155-186.

Blasius, W. (1883). Über die letzen Vorkommnisse des Riesen-Alks Alca impennis und die in Braunschweig und an anderen Orten befindlichen Exemplare dieser Art. III. Jahresb. Ver. Naturw. Braunschweig 1883: 89-115.

Blasius, W. (1884). Zur Geschichte der Überreste von Alca impennis L. Journal für Ornithologie 4(3): 58-176. [volume 32?]

Blasius, W. (1903). Der Riesenalk, Alca impennis. In: Hennicke C.R. (ed.): Naumann’s Naturgeschichte der Vögel Mitteleuropas. Vol 12: 169-208. Gera: Fr. Eugen Köhler.

Bones, M. (1993). The Garefowl or Great Auk. Hebridean Naturalist 11: 15-24.

Borri, C. (1927). Great auk in Pisa Mus. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. 36(1): 6-8.

Bourne, W. R. P. (1993). The story of the Great Auk. Archives of Natural History 20(2): 257-278. [Abstract]

Brodkorb, Pierce. (1960). Great auk and common murre from a Florida midden. The Auk 77: 342-343.

Brøgger, A. W. (1908). Vistefundet etc. Stavanger Mus. Aarshefte 18(2): 1-102.

Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Bruemer, F. (1971). Funk Island. Natural History 80: 52-57.

Burness, G. P. and Montevecchi, W. A. (1992). Oceanographic-related variation in the bone sizes of extinct Great Auks. Polar Biology 11: 545-551.

Campmas, Emilie et al. (2010). A great auk (Pinguinus impennis) in North Africa: discovery of a bone remain in a Neolithic layer of El Harhoura 2 Cave(Temara, Morocco). Birds in Archaeology: Proceedings of the 6th Meeting of the ICAZ Bird Working Group in Groningen (23.8 - 27.8.2008). W. Prummel,

J.T. Zeiler & D.C. Brinkhuizen (eds.). Groningen Archaeological Studies 12: 233-240.

Carruccio, A. (1902). Sovra un palmipede rarissimo e di gran valore Plautus impennis donata da S. M. Il Re Vittorio Emmanuelle III al Museo Zoologico della R. Università di Roma. Bollettino della Società Zoologica Italiana, serie 2, 3: 1-20. [includes list of known specimens]

Cartwright, G. (1792). A Journal of Transactions and Events During a Residence of Nearly Sixteen Years on the Coast of Labrador, Vol. III. Newark, England.

Cassoli, P. F. and Segre, A. G. (1989). L'Alca impenne Alca impennis del Pleistocene d'Italia. Atti Ill Conv. Ital. Orn. [1989]: 251-254.

Christiani, A. (1917). [Bones of Pinguinus impennis found near Vardö, Norway]. Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidsskr 11: 1-4.

Christiani, A. (1929). [Pinguinus impennis bones in Pleistocene beds in N. Norway (Vardö)]. Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidsskr 23: 79-83.

Clottes, J., Courtin, J., Collina-Girard, J., Arnold, J. and Valladas, H. (1997). News from Cosquer Cave. Antiquity 71: 321-326.

Cokinos, C. (2000). Hope is the thing with feathers: A personal chronicle of vanished birds. New York: J. P. Tarcher & Putnam.

Collett, R. (1866). [Brief note on Pinguinus impennis in Norway]. Journ. für Orn. 14: 70.

Cooper, J. H. 1997. The Great Auk in Late Pleistocene Gibraltar. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 117(3): 159.

Cooper, J. H. 1999. Late Pleistocene Avifaunas of Gibraltar and their Palaeoenvironmental Significance. PhD Thesis, Royal Holloway, University of London. 385 pp.

COOPER, I. H. 2005. Pigeons and pelagics: interpreting the Late Pleistocene avifaunas ofthe continental 'island' of Gibraltar. In ALcovER, I.A. & BavER, P. (eds.): Proceedings of the International Symposium "Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the Palaeontological Approach', Monografies de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Balears, 12: 101-112.

Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Crofford, E. (1989). Gone Forever: The Great Auk. New York: Crestwood House.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

De Lozoya, Arturo Valledor, García, David González and Parish, Jolyon. (2016). A great auk for the Sun King. Archives of Natural History 43(1): 41-56. [Abstract]

De Vos, Ricardo. (2007). Extinction Stories: Performing Absence(s), pp. 183-195: In: Simmons, L. and Armstrong, P. (eds.). Knowing Animals.  Leiden: Brill.

d'Errico, Francesco. (1994a). Birds of the Grotte Cosquer: the Great Auk and Palaeolithic prehistory. Antiquity 68(258): 39-47. [Abstract]

d'Errico, Francesco. (1994b). Great Auks of the Cosquer Cave again: a reply to McDonald. Antiquity 68(261): 856-858. [Abstract]

Didier, R. (1934). Le grand pingoiun, Plautus impennis l. La Terre et la Vie (Paris) 4: 13-20.

Eastham, A. and Eastham, M. (1995). Palaeolithic images and the Great Auk. Antiquity 69: 1023-1025.

Eckhart, Allan W. (1964). The Last Great Auk. Collins. (NB: this is a fictional account)

Eckhart, Allan W. (2003). The Last Great Auk. Jesse Stuart Foundation. [this is a work of fiction]

Ehrlich, Paul R., Dobkin, David S. and Wheye, Darryl. (1992). Birds in Jeopardy: The Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 259 pp.

Elorza, Mikelo and Sánchez Marco, A. (1993). Postglacial fossil Great Auk and associated avian fauna from the Biscay Bay. Munibe 45: 179-185.

Elphick, Chris S., Roberts, David L. and Reed, J. Michael. (2010). Estimated dates of recent extinctions for North American and Hawaiian birds. Biological Conservation 143: 617-624.

Feilden, H. W. (1872). Birds of the Faeroe Islands. Zoologist (2) 7: 3277-3299. [pp. 3280-3285]

Feldegg C. F. von 1842: Catalog der Exotischen Voegel in der Sammlung des Obersten Baron Feldegg zusammengestellt am 31 October 1842. Unpublished manuscript, deposited in the Department of Zoology, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic.

Figueiredo, Silvério Domingues et al. (2017). Pleistocene Birds of Gruta da Furninha (Peniche-Portugal): A Paleontological and Paleoenvironmental Aproach. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A 6: 502-509. [one of three fossil records from Portugal]

Finlayson, Clive. (2019). The Smart Neanderthal. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fisher, Clemency T. (1996). Bird bone, pp. 144-151. In: Davey, P. J., Freke, D. J. and Higgins, D. A. (eds.). Excavations in Castletown, Isle of Man 1989-1992. Liverpool University Press.

Fisher, Clemency T. (1997). Past human exploitation of birds on the Isle of Man, pp. 292-297. In: Serjeantson, Dale (ed.). Subsistence and Symbol. Papers from the International Council for Archaeozoology Bird Group Meeting, 1995. Internaional Journal of Osteoarchaeology, volume 7.

Fisher, Clemency T. and Warr, F. E. (2003). Museums on paper: library & manuscript resources. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 123A: 136-164.

Fisher, J. and Lockley, R. M. (1954). Sea Birds. London: Collins.

Foxton-Firby, E. 1865. The recent exhumation of bones of the great auk. Naturalist 1: 323-325.

Freethy, Ron. (1987). Auks: an ornithologist's guide. Poole: Blandford Press. 208 pp.

Frič A. [Fritsch A.], 1863: Notiz über Alca impennis; über Syrrhaptes paradoxus, etc. in Böhmen. Journal für Ornithologie 11: 295-297.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Fuller, Errol. (1999). The Great Auk. Southborough, Kent, UK: Self published.

Fuller, Errol. (2003). The Great Auk: The Extinction of the Original Penguin (Lost Worlds). Boston, Massachusetts: Bunker Hill Publishing. 48 pp.

Garrad, L. S. (1972). Bird remains, including those of a great auk Alca impennis from a midden deposit in a cave at Perwick Bay, Isle of Man. Ibis 114: 258-259.

Gaskell, Jeremy. (2000a). Who Killed the Great Auk?. New York: Oxford University Press, 227 pp.

Gaskell, Jeremy. (2000b). Remarks on the terminology used to describe developmental behaviour among the auks (Alcidae), with particular reference to that of the Great Auk Pinguinus impennis. Ibis 146: 231-240. [Abstract]

Gerlach, Justin. (2014). Extinct Animals of the British Isles. Self Published.

Ghiraldi, Luca and Aimassi, Giorgio. (2019). Extinct and endangered (‘E&E’) birds in the ornithological collection of the Museum of Zoology of Torino University, Italy. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 139(1): 28-45.

Gibbs, K. E., Mackey, R. L. and Currie, D. J. (2009). Human land use, agriculture, pesticides and losses of imperiled species. Diversity and Distributions 15(2): 242-253.

Gourdin, H., 2008. Le Grand Pingouin, Pinguinus impennis, - 500 000 - 1844, Biographie. Paris, 172 pp.

Greenway, J. C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. New York: Dover Publications.

Grieve, Symington. (1885). The Great Auk, or Garefowl (Alca impennis, Linn.): its history, archaeology, and remains. London: Thomas C. Jack, 141 pp. [540 pp.?]

Grieve, Symington. (1888). Recent information about the Great Auk or Garefowl (Alca impennis, Linn.). Trans. Edinburgh Field Naturalists' and Microscopical Soc., Presidential address, Session 20.

Grieve, Symington. (1897). Supplementary note on the great auk. Trans. Edinburugh Field Nat. and micrscop. Soc. 3(6): 237-272.

Grieve, Symington. (1897). Additional notes on the great auk. Edinburugh Field Nat. and micrscop. Soc. 3(7): 327-340.

Grigson, C. (1986). Bird-foraging patterns in the Mesolithic. In: Bonsall, C. (ed.). The Mesolithic in Europe. Papers Presented at the Third International Symposium. Edinburgh: John Donald.

Groot, M. (2005). The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis) in the Netherlands during the Roman Period. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 15(1): 15-22.

Grote, H. (1914). Alca impennis im Jahre 1848 im Norwegen erbeutet? Orn. Monatsb. 22(1): 5-6.

Gurney, J. H. 1868-76. The Great Auk. Zoologist 1868:1442-1453; 1869:1639-1643, 1684; 1870:1982; 1872:3064-3065; 1876:4847-4848; Naturalist Huddersfield 1, 1875-76:186.

Halliday, Tim. (1978). Vanishing Birds: Their Natural History and Conservation. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.

Halliday, T. R. 1979. The Great Auk. Oceans 12: 27-31.

Harrison, C. J. O. and Stewart, J. R. (1999). Avifauna, pp. 187-196. In: Roberts, M. B. and Parfitt, S. A. (eds.). Boxgrove: A Middle Pleistocene Hominid Site at Eartham Quarry, Boxgrove, West Sussex. Arachaeological Report 17. London: English Heritage. [bones from a single Great auk were found]

Harting, J. E. (1883). The last great auk. Zoologist 7(83): 470.

Harting, J. E. (1884). The last great auk, Zoologist 8(88): 141-142.

Harvie-Brown, J. A. and Buckley, T. E. (1888). A vertebrate fauna of the Outer Hebrides. Edinburugh, 279 pp. [Pinguinus impennis on p. 159]

Hay, O. P. (1902). On the finding of the bones of the Great Auk (Plautus impennis) in Florida. Auk 19: 255-258.

Helliesen, T. (1901). [Pinguinus impennis remains at Kvernevig near Stavanger]. Stavanger Mus. Aarsheft 11: 59.

Herrick, H. (1873). Partial catalogue of birds of Grand Manan. Bull. Essex Inst. 5: 28-41. [subfossil record from Nantucket Island kitchen midden]

Hobson, K. A.; Montevecchi, W. A. 1991. Stable isotope determination of the trophic status of the Great Auk. Oecologia 87: 528-531.

Horn, Ivo R. et al. (2019). Palaeoproteomics of bird bones for taxonomic classification. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz012 [Abstract]

Houston, A. I., Wood, J. and Wilkinson, M. (2010). How did the Great Auk raise its young?. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23(9): 1899-1906. [Abstract]

Hudon, Daniel. (2016). From "Brief Eulogies for Lost Species. The Goose 15(1): 1.

Hufthammer, A. K. (1982). Geirfuglens utbredelse og morfologiske variasjon I Skandinavia. Hovedfagsoppgave. Bergen, Norway: (zoologisk okologi), Universitetet i Bergen. [in Norwegian].

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Iredale, Tom. (1924). As extinct as the Dodo. The Australian Museum Magazine 2(4): 117-120.

Jameson, J. F. (1906). Original Narratives of Early American History: Early English and French Voyages 1534-1608. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.

Jansen, J. J. F. J. (2011). The Leverian Great Auk Alca impennis, its known history. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 131(1): 72.

Jordan, R. and Olson, S. (1982). First Record of the Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis) from Labrador. The Auk 99(1): 167-168.

Jouanin, Christian. (1962). Inventaire des oiseaux éteints ou en voie d’extinction conservés au Muséum de Paris. Terre et Vie 109: 275-301.

Kalshoven, Petra Tjitske. (2018). Piecing Together the Extinct Great Auk: Techniques and Charms of Contiguity. Environmental Humanities 10(1): 150-170.

Kirkham, I. R. and Montevecchi, W. A. (1982). The breeding birds of Funk Island, Newfoundland: an historical perspective. American Birds 36(2): 111-118.

Kjartansdóttir, Katla. (2019). The changing symbolic meaning of the extinct great auk and its afterlife as a museum object at the Natural History Museum of Denmark. Nordisk Museologi 26(2): 41-56.

Langeveld, Bram W. (2020). New Finds, Sites and Radiocarbon Dates of Skeletal Remains of the Great Auk Pinguinus impennis from the Netherlands. Ardea 108(1): 5-19.

Ley, W. (1935). The great auk. Nat. Hist. 36: 351-357.

Livezey, B. C. 1988. Morphometrics of flightlessness in the Alcidae. The Auk 105: 681-698.

Loomis, F. B. and Young, D. B. (1912). Shell heaps of Maine. Amer. Journ. Sci (4) 34: 17-42.

Lorimer, Jamie. (2014). On Auks and Awkwardness. Environmental Humanities 4: 195-205.

Love, J.A. (2011). The last Great Auk?. Scottish Birds 31(4): 341-347.

Lucas, F. A. (1888). Great Auk Notes. The Auk 5(3): 278-283.

Lucas, F. A. (1890). The expedition to Funk Island with observations upon the history and anatomy of the great auk. Rep. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888: 493-529.

Lund, Nicholas. (2013). Crying Wolf, AUk & Tasmanian tiger: Fake sightings of probably extict species. The Morung Express, Saturday, 7 September, p. 6.

Lyngs, P. 1994. Gejrfuglen. Et 150 års minde. Dansk Ornitologisk Forenings Tidsskrift 88: 49-72.

Maltby, Mark and Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila. (2012). Big Fish and Great Auks: exploitation of birds and fish on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, during the Romano-British period. Environmental Archaeology 17(2): 168-176. [Abstract]

Mathew, M. A. (1866). [Great auks on Lundy Island]. Zoologist 1(2): 100-101.

McDonald, Joan F. (1994). Identifying Great Auks and other birds in the Palaeolithic art of western Europe: a reply to d'Errico. Antiquity 68(261): 850. [Abstract]

McLean, Emily A. (2019). A Zooarchaeological Analysis of Feasting at Grand Mound Shell Ring (8Du1), Duval County, Florida. Thesis, Florida State University.

Meldgaard, M. (1988). The Great Auk: Pinguinus impennis (L) in Greenland. Historical Biology 1: 145-178.

Milne, John. (1875). Relics of the Great Auk on Funk Island. The Field, March 27: 296.

Mlíkovský, Jiří. (2002). Cenozoic birds of the world. Part 1: Europe. Praha: Ninox Press, 406 pp.

Mlíkovský, Jiří. (2012). Extinct and nearly extinct birds in the collections of the National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 181(9): 95-123. [automatic download]

Montevecchi, W. A. and Kirk, D. A. (1996). Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis). The birds of North America (A. Poole, ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

Moore, E. (1837). [Body of a great auk on Lundy Island]. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1: 361.

Morris, P. A. (1991). Photographs of a missing egg of the Great Auk (Alca impennis). Archives of Natural History 18(2): 249-250. [First page]

Moum, Truls; Arnason, Ulfur; and, Arnason, Einar. (2002). Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Evolution and Phylogeny of the Atlantic Alcidae, Including the Extinct Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis). Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:9 1434-1439.

Mourer-Chauviré, C. 1999. Influence de l'homme préhistorique sur la répartition de certains oiseaux marins: l'exemple du Grand Pingouin Pinguinus impennis. Alauda 67[4): 273-279.

Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile and Antunes, M. T. (1991). Présence du Grand Pingouin, Pinguinus impennis (Aves, Charadriiformes) dans le Pléistocène de Portugal. Geobios, 24(2): 201-205.

Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile and Antunes, M. T. (2000). L’Avifaune Pléistocèneet Holocene de Gruta da Figueira Brava. Actas do colóquio Últimos Neandertais em Portugal, evidência, odontológica e outra. Academia de Ciências de Lisboa, 129-162. [one of three fossil records from Portugal]

Mousley, H. (1919). Further notes on the birds of Hatley, Standstead Co., Quebec. Auk 36: 472-487.

Mullens, W. H. (1921). Notes on the great auk. British Birds 15(5): 98-108.

Nettleship, D. and Birkhead, T. (1985). The Atlantic Alcidae. London: Academic Press.

Newton, Alfred. (1861). Abstract of Mr. J. Wolley's researches in Iceland concerning (respecting?) the Garefowl or Great Auk (Alca impennis Linn.). Ibis 2: 374-399. [volume 3(4)?]

Newton, Alfred. (1865). The gare-fowl and its historians. Nat. Hist. Rev. 4: 467-488.

Newton, Alfred. (1898). On the Orcadian home of the gairfowl (Alca impennis). Ibis 1898: 587-592.

Olson, Storrs L. (2004). A fossil of the Great Auk (Penguinus impennis) from Middle Pleistocene deposits on Bermuda. Atlantic Seabirds 5: 81-84.

Olson, Storrs. L., Swift, Camm. C. and Mokhiber, Carmine. (1979). An attempt to determine the prey of the Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis). The Auk 96(4): 790-792.

Olson, S. L. and Lund, J. N. (2007). Whalers and woggins: a new vocabulary for interpreting some early accounts of the great auk and penguins. Archives of Natural History 34(1): 69-78.

Olson, S. L., Overstreet, L. and Lund, J. N. (2007). An Alca-bibliographical study of The English pilot: the history of its account of the great auk (Alcidae: Pinguinus impennis). Archives of Natural History 34(1): 79-86. [Abstract]

Owen, Richard. (1865). Description of the skeleton of the Great Auk (Alca impennis). Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 4: 317-335.

Parkin, T. (1913). Sale of a Great Auk's egg. British Birds 6: 256-257.

Peters, H. S. and Burleigh, T. D. (1951). The Birds of Newfoundland. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Riverside Press.

Pieper, Harald. (1985). The fossil land birds of Madeira and Porto Santo. Bocagiana 88: 1-6. [one of three fossil records from Portugal]

Pile, Stephen. (1986). How they scotched the great auk story. Sunday Times, 11 May.

Pimenta, Carlos et al. (2008). Novo registo de Pinguim (Pinguinus impennis) no Plistocénico de Portugal. Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia 11(2): 361-370.

Platt, M. I. (1936). [Remains of great auk in Orkney]. Proc. Soc. Antiquaries Scotland 70: 415-419.

Preyer, W. (1862a). Der Brillenalk Plautus impennis in europaeischen Sammlungen. Journ. für Orn. 10: 77-79.

Preyer, W. (1862b). Über Plautus impennis Brunn. Journ. für Orn. 10: 110-124, 337-356.

Putnam, F. W. (1868). Remains of great auk in Massachusetts. Proc. Essex Inst. 5: 310

Putnam, F. W. (1870). Remains of great auk in Massachusetts. Amer. Nat. 3(10): 540.

Reinhardt, J. (1854). [Great auk listed from Greenland]. Journ. für Orn. 2: 442.

Roberts, D. L. and Jarić, I. (2016). Inferring extinction in North American and Hawaiian birds in the presence of sighting uncertainty. PeerJ 4: e2426.

Rothschild, Walter. (1928). Mounted example of great auk. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 49: 4-9.

Russell, Douglas G. D. et al. (2018). All Our Eggs In One Basket: Challenges of High Resolution X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Great Auk Pinguinus impennis Eggshell. Biodiversity Information Science and Standards 2: e25794. [Abstract]

Scherdlin, P. (1926). Great auk in Strasbourg. Mus. Bull. Assoc. Philom. Alsace Lorraine 7.

Serjeantson, Dale. (1988). Archaeological and ethnographic evidence for seabird exploitation in Scotland. Archaeozoologia II 1/2: 290-224.

Serjeantson, Dale. (2001). The Great Auk and the Gannet: a Prehistoric Perspective on the Extinction of the Great Auk. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. Special Issue: Zooarchaeology of Oceanic Coasts and Islands 11(1-2): 43-55. [Abstract]

Serjeantson, Dale. (2010). Extinct Birds, pp. 146-155. In: O’Connor, Terry and Sykes, Naomi (eds.). Extinctions and Invasions: A Social History of British Fauna. Oxbow Books & Windgather Press.

Serrano, Francisco J. et al. (2020). Morphological Disparity of the Humerus in Modern Birds. Diversity 12(5): 173.

Shaw, H. S. (1940). An early figure of the great auk. Auk 57: 112.

Sheppard, T. (1922). Unrecorded egg of great auk. Naturalist (London) 1922: 254.

Steenstrup, J. J. S. (1855). Et Bidrag til Gierfuglens, Alca impennis, etc. Vid. Medd. Naturh. For. Kobenhavn 3-7: 33-115.

Steinheimer, Frank D. (2002). Darwin, Rüppell, Landbeck & Co. - Important Historical Collections at The Natural History Museum, Tring. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 51(2-3): 175-188.

Steinheimer, Frank D. (2010). Walter Rothschild's second Great Auk skeleton: a history of its posthumous voyage. Archives of Natural History 29(3): 337-345. [Abstract]

Stewart, J.R 2002. Seabirds from coastal, non-coastal, archaeological and 'natural' Pleistocene deposits or not all unexpected deposition is of human origin. Aeta Zool. Cracov., 45: 167-178.

Stresemann E., 1957: Jubiläumstagung der Tschechoslowakischen Ornithologischen Gesellschaft 98: 132.

Thomas, Jessica E. et al. (2017). An ‘Aukward’ Tale: A Genetic Approach to Discover the Whereabouts of the Last Great Auks. Genes 8: 164. [automatic download]

Thomas, Jessica E. et al. (2019). Demographic reconstruction from ancient DNA supports rapid extinction of the great auk. eLife 8: e47509.

Thornhill, Jan. (2016). The Tragic Tale of the Great Auk. Groundwood Books. 44p.

Ticehurst, N. F. (1908). [Title?]. Brit. Birds 1: 310. [subfossil record from near the Bay of Ayr, Orkney Islands]

Tomkinson, P. M. L. and Tomkinson, J. W. (1966). Eggs of the Great Auk. Bull. Brit. Mus. 3: 97-128.

Töpfer, Till. (2020). Great auk (Pinguinus impennis) eggs in Bonn: correspondence between Emile Parzudaki and Robert. Archives of Natural History 47(2): 319-324. [Abstract]

Townsend, C. W. (1907). Bones of great auk at Mt. Desert Island. Journ. Maine Orn. Soc. 9: 82.

Tuck, J. A. (1971). An Archaic cemetery at Port au Choix, Newfoundland. American Antiquity 36(3): 343-358.

Tyrberg, T. (1999). Seabirds and late Pleistocene marine environments in the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In: Olson S.L. (ed.): Avian paleontology at the close of the 20th century. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89: 139-157.

Unsöld, Markus. (2014). “Two and a half auks” – the history of the Great Auks, Pinguinus impennis, at the ZSM (Charadriiformes, Alcidae). Spixiana 37(1): 153-159.

Ussher, R. J. (1897). Discovery of bones of the great auk in Co. Waterford, Ireland. Irish Nat. 6: 208.

Ussher, R. J. (1899). Remains of Plautus impennis from Irish kitchen middens. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 8: 50.

Ussher, R. J. (1902). Great auk bones in Co. Clare, Ireland. Irish Nat. 11: 188.

Warren, Nick. (2001). The End of the Auk. Fortean Times 145: 48.

Weigel, Penelope Hermes. (1958). Great Auk remains from a Florida shell midden. Auk 75: 215-216.

Whitbourne, R. (1620). A Discourse and Discovery of Newfound-land. London: Felix Kyngston.

Wijngaarden-Bakker, L. H. van. (1978). A subfossil Great Auk Pinguinus impennis (L.) from the Netherlands. Ardea 66: 57-61.

Williamson, K. (1939). The great auk in Man. Journ. Manx. Mus. 4: 168-172.

Williamson, K. (1941). Early drawings of the great auk and gannet made on the Isle of Man in 1652. Ibis 1941: 301-310.

Wiman, C. (1942). Über den Tarsometatarsus der Alca impennis L. Medd. Goteburg Mus. Zool. Avd. 94.

Wiman, C. and Hessland, I. (1942). On the garefowl, Alca impennis L., and the sternum of birds. Nov. Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Uppsaliensis (4) 13(2), 28 pp.

Winge, H. (1903). [Alca impennis in Danish kitchen middens]. Vid. Medd. Naturh. For. Kobehavn 1903: 61-109.

Winge, H. (1912). [Remains of great auk in Scandinavia]. Vid. Medd. Naturh. For. Kobehavn 63: 184-193.

Wyman, J. (1868). An account of some Kjoekkenmoeddings or shell-heaps in Maine and Massachussetts. Amer. Nat. 1(11): 561-584. [Great auk on p. 578]

Wyman, J. (1869). Second annual report, Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, p. 17.

https://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v022n03/p0300-p0302.pdf

https://www.seabird.org/page.php?level1_id=21&level2_id=82&fullstory=83#83

https://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=wRvFBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA311&ots=19FBEBCkG5&sig=MWTYhhPqTm8BLBiOdOwHjMuSoaI#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48764079#page/335/mode/1up

https://cphpost.dk/history/copenhagen-shrine-of-the-great-auk.html

Extinct, tv show, season 1, episode 4, "The Great Auk", originally aired 16 October 2001, see here: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0297556/episodes?ref_=tt_ep_epl

https://karlshuker.blogspot.com/2019/03/late-survival-of-lost-auk-garefowl.html

https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/7780/great-auk 

 

Acknowledgements

Dale Serjeantson provided me with a copy of her 2001 paper, from which I gleaned much information including several valuable references. She also gave me the citation for (Maltby & Hamilton-Dyer, 2013) which had not been published yet.

 

<< Back to the Charadriiformes database